Chapter 12: Social Psychology
Chapter 12: Social Psychology 1010-07
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1010-07 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Nicholas Comotto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
Reviews for Chapter 12: Social Psychology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/15/15
Chapter 12 Social Psvch0102v What is social psychology a Situational and Dispositional In uences on Behavior i Social Psychology field of psychology that examines how people impact or affect each other with particular focus on the power of the situation 1 Intrapersonal vs Interpersonal Levels of Inquiry ii Situationism describes a perspective that behavior and actions are determined by the immediate environment and surroundings a view promoted by social psychologists iii Dispositionism describes a perspective common to personality psychologists which asserts that our behavior is determined by internal factors such as personality traits and temperament iv Internal Factor internal attribute of a person such as personality traits or temperament b Fundamental Attribution Error i Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to overemphasize internal factors as attributions for behavior and underestimate the power of the situation 1 Is Fundamental Attribution Error universal a Individualistic Culture culture that focuses on individual achievement and autonomy b Collectivistic Culture culture that focuses on communal relationships with others such as family friends and community c ActorObserver Bias i Actorobserver Bias phenomenon of explaining other people s behaviors are due to internal factors and our own behaviors are due to situational forces d SelfServing Bias i Selfserving Bias tendency for individuals to take credit by making dispositional or internal attributions for positive outcomes and situational or external attributions for negative outcomes ii Attribution explanation for the behavior of other people e Just World Hypothesis i Justworld Hypothesis ideology common in the United States that people get the outcomes they deserve II SelfPresentation a Social Roles i Social Roles socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person in a given setting or group b Social Norms i Social Norms group s expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for the thoughts and behavior of its members c Scripts i Script person s knowledge about the sequence of events in a specific setting d Zimbardo s Stanford Prison Experiment i Stanford Prison Experiment Stanford University conducted an experiment in a mock prison that demonstrated the power of social roles social norms and scripts 1 Power of Situation 2 Confounding Variables amp Experimental Bias III Attitudes and Persuasion a What is Cognitive Dissonance i Cognitive Dissonance psychological discomfort that arises from a con ict in a person s behaviors attitudes or beliefs that runs counter to one s positive selfperception b The Effect of Initiation i Aronson amp Mills 1 Justification of Effort Effect c Persuasion i Persuasion process of changing our attitude toward something based on some form of communication d Yale Attitude Change Approach i Features of source ii Context of message iii Characteristics of the audience e Elaboration Likelihood Model i Petty and Cacioppo ii Central Route logicdriven arguments using data and facts to convince people of an argument s worthiness iii Peripheral Route one person persuades another person an indirect route that relies on association of peripheral cues such as positive emotions and celebrity endorsement to associate positivity with a message f FootintheDoor Technique i Footinthedoor Technique persuasion of one person by another person encouraging a person to agree to a small favor or to buy a small item only to later request a larger favor or purchase of a larger item IV Conformity Compliance and Obedience a Conformity i Conformity when individuals change their behavior to go along with the group even if they do not agree with the group ii Confederate person who works for a researcher and is aware of the experiment but who acts as a participant used to manipulate social situations as part of the research design iii Asch Effect group majority in uences an individual s judgment even when that judgment is inaccurate 1 Size of Majority 2 The Presence of Another Dissenter 3 The Public or Private Nature of the Responses iv Deutsch amp Gerard 1 Normative Social In uences conformity to a group norm to fit in feel good and be accepted by the group 2 Informational Social In uences conformity to a group norm prompted by the belief that the group is competent and has the correct information b Stanley Milgram s Experiment i Obedience change of behavior to please an authority figure or to avoid aversive consequences c Groupthink i Groupthink group members modify their opinions to match what they believe is the group consensus ii Symptoms 1 perceiving the group as invulnerable or invincible believing it can do no wrong 2 believing the group is morally correct 3 selfcensorship by group members such as withholding information to avoid disrupting the group consensus the quashing of dissenting group members opinions the shielding of the group leader from dissenting views perceiving an illusion of unanimity among group members holding stereotypes or negative attitudes toward the outgroup or 891quot others with differing view points d Group Polarizing i Group Polarizing strengthening of the original group attitude after discussing views within the group e Social Facilitation i Social Facilitation improved performance when an audience is watching versus when the individual performs the behavior alone f Social Loafing i Social Loafing exertion of less effort by a person working in a group because individual performance cannot be evaluated separately from the group thus causing performance decline on easy tasks V Prejudice and Discrimination a Understanding Prejudice and Discrimination ii iii Prejudice negative attitudes and feelings toward individuals based solely on their membership in a particular group Stereotype negative beliefs about individuals based solely on their membership in a group regardless of their individual characteristics Discrimination negative actions toward individuals as a result of their membership in a particular group b Types of Prejudice and Discrimination i ii iii iv Racism prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based solely on their race 1 Explicit 2 Implicit Sexism prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based on their sex Ageism prejudice and discrimination toward individuals based solely on their age Homophobia prejudice and discrimination against individuals based solely on their sexual orientation c Why Do Prejudice and Discrimination Exist i Prejudice and discrimination persist in society due to social learning and conformity to social norms d Stereotypes and SelfFulfilling Prophecy i ii Selffulfilling Prophecy treating stereotyped group members according to our biased expectations only to have this treatment in uence the individual to act according to our stereotypic expectations thus confirming our stereotypic beliefs Confirmation Bias seeking out information that supports our stereotypes while ignoring information that is inconsistent with our stereotypes e InGroups and OutGroups i ii Ingroup group that we identify with or see ourselves as belonging to Outgroup group that we don t belong to one that we view as fundamentally different from us iii Ingroup Bias preference for our own group over other groups iv Scapegoating act of blaming an outgroup when the ingroup experiences frustration or is blocked from obtaining a goal VI Aggression a Aggression i Aggression seeking to cause harm or pain to another person ii Hostile Aggression aggression motivated by feelings of anger With intent to cause pain iii Instrumental Aggression aggression motivated by achieving a goal and does not necessarily involve intent to cause pain b Bullying i Bullying a person often an adolescent being treated negatively repeatedly and over time c Cyberbullying i Cyberbullying repeated behavior that is intended to cause psychological or emotional harm to another person and that takes place online d The Bystander Effect i Bystander Effect situation in Which a Witness or bystander does not volunteer to help a victim or person in distress ii Diffusion of Responsibility tendency for no one in a group to help because the responsibility to help is spread throughout the group VII Prosocial Behavior a Prosocial Behavior and Altruism i Prosocial Behavior voluntary behavior With the intent to help other people ii Altruism humans desire to help others even if the costs outweigh the benefits of helping iii Empathy capacity to understand another person s perspective to feel What he or she feels b Forming Relationships i Proximity and Exposure Frequency ii iii iv Homophily tendency for people to form social networks including friendships marriage business relationships and many other types of relationships With others Who are similar Reciprocity give and take in relationships Selfdisclosure sharing personal information in relationships c Attraction i ii Physical Attractiveness 1 Individual Differences 2 Cultural In uences Social Traits 1 Gender Differences a Still valid 2 Matching Hypothesis d Sternberg s Triangular Theory of Love i ii iii iv Sternberg s triangular theory of love model of love based on three components intimacy passion and commitment several types of love exist depending on the presence or absence of each of these components Consummate Love type of love occurring When intimacy passion and commitment are all present Companionate Love type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment but not passion associated With close friendships and family relationships Romantic Love type of love consisting of intimacy and passion but no commitment e Social Exchange Theory 1 Social Exchange Theory humans act as na39139ve economists in keeping a tally of the ratio of costs and benefits of forming and maintain a relationship With the goal to maximize benefits and minimize costs The nai39ve economist
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'