Chapter 9: Lifespan Development
Chapter 9: Lifespan Development 1010-07
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1010-07 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Nicholas Comotto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
1 Chapter 9: Lifespan Development I. What is Lifespan Development? a. Area Change & Grow i. Three domains: 1. Physical development: domain of lifespan development that examines growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and health and wellness 2. Cognitive development: domain of lifespan development that examines learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity 3. Psychosocial development: process proposed by Erikson in which social tasks are mastered as humans move through eight stages of life from infancy to adulthood ii. Normative Approach: study of development using norms, or average ages, when most children reach specific developmental milestones 1. Developmental milestones: approximate ages at which children reach specific normative events a. Walking, talking, crawling, etc. 2. Biological vs. Social Milestones b. Issues in Developmental Psychology i. Is Development Continuous or Discontinuous? 1. Continuous development: view that development is a cumulative process: gradually improving on existing skills 2. Discontinuous development: view that development takes place in unique stages, which happen at specific times or ages ii. Is there one course of development or many? 1. Language 2. Motor skills/abilities iii. How do nature and nurture influence development? 1. Nurture: environment and culture 2 2. Nature: genes and biology 3. The Achievement Gap & Socioeconomic Status a. Hart and Risley II. Lifespan Theories a. Psychosexual Theory of Development i. Sigmund Freud 1. Psychosexual Development: process proposed by Freud in which pleasureseeking urges focus on different erogenous zones of the body as humans move through five stages of life b. Psychosocial Theory of Development i. Erik Erikson 1. Psychosocial development: process proposed by Erikson in which social tasks are mastered as humans move through eight stages of life from infancy to adulthood c. Cognitive Theory of Development i. Jean Piaget 1. Stage Theory a. Sensorimotor: first stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from birth through age 2, a child learns about the world through senses and motor behavior b. Preoperational: second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from ages 2 to 7, children learn to use symbols and language but do not understand mental operations and often think illogically c. Concrete Operational: third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from about 7 to 11 years old, children can think logically about real (concrete) events d. Formal Operational: final stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from age 11 and up, children 3 are able to deal with abstract ideas and hypothetical situations 2. Schemata: concept (mental model) that is used to help us categorize and interpret information 3. Assimilation: adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known 4. Accommodation: adjustment of a schema by changing a scheme to accommodate new information different from what was already known d. Beyond Formal Operational Thought i. Theory of Moral Development 1. Discerning from right and wrong ii. Kohlberg & Stage Theory 1. Stages of Moral Reasoning: iii. Carol Gilligan & Levels 1. PreConventional Morality 2. Conventional Morality 3. PostConventional Morality III. Stages of Development a. Parental Development b. Germinal Stage (Weeks 12) i. Conception: when a sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a zygote ii. Zygote: structure created when a sperm and egg merge at conception; begins as a single cell and rapidly divides to form the embryo and placenta iii. Mitosis: process of cell division c. Embryonic Stage (Weeks 38) i. Embryo: multicellular organism in its early stages of development ii. Placenta: structure connected to the uterus that provides nourishment and oxygen to the developing baby d. Fetal Stage (Weeks 940) i. Organs, organ systems, etc. ii. Postviability e. Parental Influences 4 i. Parental care: medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus ii. Teratogen: biological, chemical, or physical environmental agent that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus 1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) 2. Nicotine & Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) 3. Addictive Substances & Perinatal Addiction (heroin, cocaine, etc.) iii. Critical or Sensitive Period: time during fetal growth when specific parts or organs develop f. Infancy Through Childhood i. Newborn Reflexes: inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation that all healthy babies are born with g. Physical Development i. Motor Skills: ability to move our body and manipulate objects 1. Fine motor skills: use of muscles in fingers, toes, and eyes to coordinate small actions 2. Gross motor skills: use of large muscle groups to control arms and legs for large body movements h. Cognitive Development i. Language, problemsolving, etc. i. Attachment i. Attachment: longstanding connection or bond with others 1. John Bowlby & Attachment Theory a. Secure Base: parental presence that gives the infant/toddler a sense of safety as he explores his surroundings 2. Mary Ainsworth & Attachment Types a. Secure Attachment: characterized by the child using the parent as a secure base from which to explore 5 b. Avoidant Attachment: characterized by child’s unresponsiveness to parent, does not use the parent as a secure base, and does not care if parent leaves c. Resistant Attachment: characterized by the child’s tendency to show clingy behavior and rejection of the parent when she attempts to interact with the child d. Disorganized Attachment: characterized by the child’s odd behavior when faced with the parent; type of attachment seen most often with kids that are abused j. SelfConcept i. Diana Baumrind & Parenting Style 1. Authoritative Style: parents give children reasonable demands and consistent limits, express warmth and affection, and listen to the child’s point of view 2. Permissive Style: parents make few demands and rarely use punishment 3. Uninvolved Style: parents are indifferent, uninvolved, and sometimes referred to as neglectful; they don’t respond to the child’s needs and make relatively few demands ii. Temperament: innate traits that influence how one thinks, behaves, and reacts with the environment k. Adolescence i. Adolescence: period of development that begins at puberty and ends at early adulthood l. Physical Development i. Adrenarche: maturing of the adrenal glands ii. Gonadarche: maturing of the sex glands iii. Primary Sexual Characteristics: organs specifically needed for reproduction 6 iv. Secondary Sexual Characteristics: physical signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs v. Menarche: beginning of menstrual period; around 12–13 years old vi. Spermarche: first male ejaculation m. Cognitive Development i. Cognitive empathy: ability to take the perspective of others and to feel concern for others n. Psychosocial Development & Emerging Adulthood i. Emerging Adulthood (18 mid 20’s): newly defined period of lifespan development from 18 years old to the mid20s; young people are taking longer to complete college, get a job, get married, and start a family o. Adulthood i. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory: social support/friendships dwindle in number, but remain as close, if not more close than in earlier years IV. Death & Dying
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