Personality- Psychology PSY 2012
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Woy on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by TBH in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
ersonality p personality peoples typical ways of thinking feeling and behaving trait relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavior across many situations nomothetic approach focuses on identifying general laws ideographic approach focuses on individuals personality twin studies 0 seems to be a biological basis for personality traits 0 identical twins are more correlated how genetics affect personality 0 genes code for proteins that in turn often influence the functioning of neurotransmitters o the functioning of many neurotransmitters is associated wit certain personality traits psychoanalytic theory and personality 0 how do our personalities develop psychoanalytic core assumptions 0 psychic determinism the assumption that all psychological events have a cause 0 symbolic meaning there are no accidents 0 unconscious motivation we largely are motivated by motives we don39t know about the structure of personality 0 idbasic instincts reservoir of our most primitive impulses including sex and aggression pleasure principle tendency to strive fo immediate gratification o egothe bosspsyches executive and principle decision makes gt reality principle tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet 0 super egosuper hero our sense of morality defense mechanisms 0 unconcious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety repression motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories denial refusal to acknowledge current events in our lives regressionreturning psychologically to a younger and safer age reaction formationtransformation of an anxiety provoking emotion into its opposite projection unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others displacement directing our impulses for a socially unacceptable target onto a safer target gt we are angry at our boss but yell at our partners rationalization producing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors or failures 0 sublimation transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admired goal stages of psycho sexual development 0 oral stage infants obtains sexual pleasure by sucking and drinking gt some stuck in this phase may smoke or over eat 0 anal stage toilet training overly harsh or lenient toilet leads to anal personalities gt someone who is anal retentive is excessively neat stingy and stubborn o phallic stage focuses on the genitals gt oedipus complexboys love their mothers romantically and want to eliminate their fathers as their rivals gt penis envy girls desire to posses a penis and develop a feeling of inferiority o latency stage sexual impulses are submerged into the unconcious gt children spend time with only the same sex 0 genital stage sexual impulses awaken and mature into romantic attachment to others OOOOOO the nebfreudians alfred adler 0 style of life each persons distinctive way of achieving superiority o inferiority complex feelings of low self esteem gt we often over compensate for such feelings canjung 0 personal unconscious gt similar to frauds idea of the unconscious o collective unconscious gt our shared storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to us across generations synchronicity simultaneous occurrence of thoughts and events archetypes cross culturally universal symbols 0 circles mothers damsel in distress behavioral views of the causes of personality 0 behavioral Views of determinism we are a product of our environments 0 behavioral views of unconscious processing social learning theories 0 reciprocal determinism tendency for people to mutually influence each others behaviors o observational learning our teachers and parents can shape our personalities o locus of control extent to which people believe that reinforces and punishers lie inside or outside their control gt externalthe world controls us gt internal i control the world around me humanistic models of personality 0 self actualization drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent 0 conditions of worth expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior we only accept ourselves when we meet these expectations 0 incongruence inconsistency bw our outward personalities and dispositions 0 peak experience transcendent moment of intense excitement and connect trait models of personality 0 what makes up our personality 0 factor analysis gt statistical approach that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures 0 helps us narrow down a huge amount of personality traits to just a few 0 lexical approach assumption that the most crucial features of human personality are embedded in our language the big 5 OCEAN o Openness to experience intellectually curious o Conscientiousness careful and responsible o Extraversionsocial and lively o Agreeableness easy to get along with goes with the flow 0 Neuroticismtense and moody 0 research findings gt high conscientiousness and low neuroticism are associated with successful job performance and good grades in school gt conscientiousness is positively associated with physical health other personality models 0 what about morality 0 big three model o 16PF 16 personality factor interpretive report made by father of modern factor analysis includes intelligence controversial 0 all other models simply break down big 5 basic tendencies vs character adaptations 0 basic tendenciesour innate preferences 0 character adaptations our specific behaviors 0 two people can both be high on religiosity but have different religions o firefighters and prisoners tend to both be high on the trait of sensation seeking random facts about personality traits o tend to be stable after age 30 0 can help predict aggregate behaviors but not single behaviors going to a party on saturday vs going to generally going to most parties 0 tend to describe personality rather than explain it o Eysenck extroverts tend to have low RAS stimulation gt introverts tend to have high RAS stimulation gt RAS reticular activation system the MMPI o the Minnesota multiphase personality inventory 0 structured personality test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders 0 empirical method of test construction an approach to building a test in which researchers begin with two or more criterion groups and examine which items best distinguishes them gt face validity o Validity of the MMPI gt malingering the F scale frequency scale making ourselves look more impaired than we are quoti have a cost most of the timequot gt impression Management the L scale lie scale making ourselves look better than we are quoti occasionally get angryquot gt correction the K scale similar to but subtler than the L scale indicates defensiveness or gaurdedness 0 Using the MMPI gt good for distinguishing bw mental illness diagnoses gt good at lDing people w schizophrenia gt subclass are highly correlated gt cannot use the subscales alone gt people are researching a shorter version the CPI 0 California psychological inventory the quotcommon persons MMPIquot gt normed on a group of quotnormalquot participants dominance flexibility socailability correlated w how other people view the person MMPI is normed of mentally ill rationality theoretically constructed tests 0 approach to building tests that requires test developers to begin w a clearcut conceptualization of a trait and then write items to assess that conceptualization o NEO personality inventory revised gt test used to measure the Big 5 traits o Myers briggs Type indicator MBTI gt based on jungian ideas about personality gt measures four traits introextroversion sensingintuiting thinking feeling judging percieving projective tests 0 projective tests gt consisting of ambiguous stimuli that examines must interpret or make sense of o projective hypothesis gt that in the process of interpreting ambiguous stimuli examines project aspects of their personality onto the stimulus o projective test consisting of ten symmetrical inkblots gt researchers judge your personality based on what you see in the blots more projective tests 0 thematic apperception test I39AT gt projective test requiring examines to tell a story in response to ambiguos pics gt not very good at scoring gt human figure drawing drawing a person test DAP ex big eyes paranoid gt graphoogy interpretation of handwriting PT Barnum effect o tendency of people to accept descriptions that apply to almost everyone as applying specifically to them gt tarot cardsfortune tellers gt horoscopes o illusionary correlation gt a mirage that leads us to see a relationship bw two variables that really isn39t there profiling 0 doesn39t work as well as we think it does 0 mostly just large generalizations