Profili Forensic Chem 11/11
Profili Forensic Chem 11/11 FRSC 367
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayli Antos on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FRSC 367 at Towson University taught by Mark Profili in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Forensic Chemistry in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Towson University.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Forensic Chemistry – Profili – Fall 2015 Drugs Introduction Drug- A natural or synthetic substance that produces a physiological or psychological effect. Narcotic drug- analgesics; depress CNS functions like BP, pulse rate, and breathing rate. Regularly using a narcotic will lead to physical dependence. MS and IR are confirmatory tests for drugs. The most common narcotics are derived from opium. Opiates Morphine can be extracted from opium and then synthesized to heroin. Heroin is usually taken by dissolving it in water, heating it, and then injecting. Heroin induces a high that’s followed by drowsiness and a sense of well- being. The effects last 3-4 hours. Codeine is also synthetically prepared from morphine. OxyContin (active ingredient oxycodone) is not opium derived but produces the same physiological effects. It is prescribed for chronic pain. Methadone is another synthetic opiate which, when taken by heroin addicts, eliminates their craving for heroin while producing less side effects. It is easy to overdose on opiates. Specific cutting agents used can trace back to a distributor. Some populations are at higher risk of overdosing on OxyContin than heroin. Hallucinogens Most well-known is marijuana. Cause changes in normal thought processes, perceptions, and mood. Marijuana is the most controversial drug because its long term effects are still mostly unknown. Also: LSD, mescaline, PCP, psilocybin (mushrooms), and MDMA. LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid and hallucinations can last for 12 hours. PCP (phencyclidine) is synthesized in clandestine labs and is often smoked, ingested, or sniffed. Was formally used as a pig tranquilizer but the US banned it for this use because it was too dangerous. It leads to many deaths due to reckless behavior and a feeling of invincibility. It is often mixed with other drugs like LSD or Amps and can be sold in the form of a powder, capsule or tablet. The feelings of strength and invulnerability may lead to depression, violence, and suicide. Marijuana The amount of THC varies throughout the plant. The highest concentrations are found in resin, then the flowers and leaves. Little is found in the stem, roots, or seeds. The resin is called hashish. Will not lead to physical dependency but there may be high risk in heavy, long-term use. Δ9 THC is common. When acid is added to the cystolithic stone it will fizz. The Duquenois-Levine test has two parts and will count as two tests. It involves two color tests with two reagents. Burned plant material will lack the bear claw. Hash doesn’t have the bear claw because it’s oil. Depressants Depress CNS functions. Calm irritability and anxiety; help to induce sleep. Alcohol, barbs, tranquilizers, inhalants (airplane glue, model cement, Freon). Alcohol will quickly travel to the brain and suppress control of thought processes and muscle coordination. Barbs (“downers”) are taken orally and induce a feeling of well-being and relaxation and can put the user to sleep. Tranquilizers have the same effects. Sniffing inhalants immediately causes exhilaration but also impairs judgement. Can cause damage to the liver, heart, and brain and can even lead to death. Stimulants Include Amphetamine, and cocaine. Increase alertness and activity and decrease fatigue and appetite. Amps and methamphetamine are usually injected and cause and initial rush and intense feeling of pleasure. After coming down from the high, the user experiences a period of exhaustion and depression. Cocaine causes alertness and increases energy while decreasing hunger, fatigue, and boredom. Crack is the base form of cocaine and can be smoked. Club Drugs Synthetic drugs that include MDMA, GHB, Rohypnol, ketamine, and meth. GHB and Rohypnol are often used as date rape drugs. MDMA causes hallucinations and Amp-like effects. It is used to enhance self-awareness and lower inhibitions. Chronic abuse often leads to seizures, muscle breakdown, stroke, kidney failure, and cardiovascular system failure. Ketamine is an animal anesthetic that causes euphoria and hallucinations in humans. It also causes impaired motor functions, high BP, amnesia, and respiratory depression. They quickly leave the body so it’s difficult to detect them in a user’s system. Anabolic Steroids Synthetic compounds related to testosterone. Abused to accelerate muscle growth. Can unpredictably affect mood and personality and lead to depression, diminished sex dive, halted bone growth, and liver cancer. Drug-Control Laws The federal Controlled Substances Act established five schedules of drug classification depending on abuse potential and medicinal value. Schedules Of Classification Schedule I- high potential for abuse and no medicinal use. Includes heroin, marijuana, methaqualone, and LSD. Schedule II- high abuse potential and some medicinal use. Includes cocaine, PCP, and most Amps and barbs. Schedule III- less potential for abuse and some medicinal use. Includes barbs, codeine, and anabolic steroids. Schedule IV- low addiction potential and medicinal use. Includes Darvon, phenobarbital, and some tranquilizers (like Valium and Librium). Schedule V- lowest addiction potential. Includes opiate mixtures with nonnarcotic ingredients. Drug Identification Two phases of analysis: Screening test- preliminary and nonspecific, used to reduce possibilities. Confirmation test- specifically identifies. Preliminary Analysis Screening tests are used to narrow down the possible identity of the unknown substance. This is usually a series of color tests. Can also use microcrystalline tests which adds a specific reagent to the suspected drug to produce crystals of known shapes and sizes. Conformational Determination Usually IR or GCMS. Qualitative vs Quantitative Identify the drug. Determine the percent composition. Need to quantify to determine intent to distribute. Collection And Preservation The field investigator must make sure the evidence is properly packages and labeled to prevent loss or cross contamination and preserve chain of custody. If large amounts of drugs are discovered, all of it must be seized.