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BSC 101 Helms Lecture Notes Finishing Notes

by: Daniel Hemenway

BSC 101 Helms Lecture Notes Finishing Notes BSC 101

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Biological Sciences > BSC 101 > BSC 101 Helms Lecture Notes Finishing Notes
Daniel Hemenway
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I am an Elite Note Taker and I will be posting notes each week, along with study guides for exams for BSC 101 (Helms), ACC 131 (Seipp), and ECO 105 (Goel). Give them a look and refer your friends ...
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.

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Date Created: 11/15/15
BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 204 − Bacterial pathogens advance through steps in the infectious disease cycle • Series of steps that a bacteria or pathogen follows throughout the infection of its host • Differs depending on the pathogen but provides framework − Example: Cholera • Exposure • Attaches to host target cell • Damage or destruction of a host cell • Pathogen exits host • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 205 − Viruses • Nonliving • Obligate intracellular parasites • Composed of nucleic acid core − Capsid: protein coat, protects nuclear material • Some also have − Envelope: enveloped viruses − Lipid rich coating around capsid, host cells membrane • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 206 − Many human diseases are caused by viruses • 1. Hepatitis − Hep. B is sexually transmitted • 2. Sexually transmitted diseases − HIV − HPV − Herpes • 3. Pneumonia Community − Influenza virus • 4. Common Cold − Rhinovirus • 5. Eye Infections − Herpes BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 207 − Viruses are diverse • Huge role of every organism on earth • Host specific • Vary in flow of genetic information − DNA virus − RNA retrovirus • Retroviruses − Class of RNA viruses that have special enzyme that transform RNA in the virus into DNA then essentially hijack host cell to turn DNA back to RNA − Viruses are difficult to treat, mainly because of: • 1. High levels of mutation • 2. Genetic recombination • 3. The host cells can’t die, but that’s where the viruses exist • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 208 − Antiviral medicines • Lessen impact of viral diseases and do so by targeting specific points in the replication cycle • Target specific points in the replication cycle: − 1. Attachment − 2. Nucleic acid synthesis − 3. Assembly of viral proteins • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 209 − Malaria • Most important human parasitic disease • Affect the most people worldwide • Caused by protest in the generous plasmodium • Transmitted by mosquito (vector) • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 210 − Another example of a disease caused by a protist is Giardi lamblia • Intestinal unfiltered water, leads to incredible gastric distress • Two stage life cycle: − 1. Feeding (active) − 2. Cysts (dormancy) • Cyst: hard protective outer surface BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 211 − Some human diseases are caused by a fungus, most of which are on the skin, hair or nails (not all – fungal lung infections are possible). • Fungi use keratin as a food source • Examples: Athlete’s foot, ringworm • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 212 − There are three main lines of defense between pathogens and the body • Body surfaces • Tissues and blood • Immune system • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 213 − Body surfaces • Epidermis: Outer most barrier − Multiple cells deep − Multiple layers • Mucous membranes: lines body cavities open to the outside • Mucus: mostly water glycoproteins (adds thickness) − Creates barrier to keep things out • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 214 − Tissue/blood defenses • Phagocytosis: Recognizes things that don’t belong and engulfs them − Antigens: specific molecules on the surface of microbes that our body is able to detect as being “out of place.” − Phagocytes: a special group of white blood cells that are able to recognize, ingest, and kill microbes that display nonself antigens on their surface − Macrophage: one type of phagocyte that is able to capture and ingest and destroy as many as 100 bacteria at a time • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 215 − Inflammatory Response: nonspecific response to damage (the response is the same every time) • 1. Damage to tissues releases histamines • 2. Histamines bring change in capillaries (causes swelling) − Swelling releases fluids • 3. Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris • 4. Platelets create dam to contain bacteria in area BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 216 − Adaptive immune system: very specific white blood cells that identify very specific antigens • Memory component: respond better if exposed to same antigen a second time • Lymphocytes (2 types): constantly monitoring for things that are not supposed to be there − 1. B Lymphocytes (cells): Found in Bone Marrow, mature and are educated in the spleen. They recognize specific antigens − 2. T Lymphocytes (cells): Educated in the Thymus. Recognize “self” vs. “nonself” • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 217 − Within the adaptive immune system, there are two immune responses: • 1. Primary immune response • 2. Secondary immune response − Primary immune response • Being expose to antigen for the first time − Macrophage: Engulfs pathogen and gives receptors (antigens) to Helper T-cells • Helper T-cells: Activates B-cells • B-cells: Help recognize antigen again for future − Antibodies: Y-shaped protein that recognize specific antigen presented by the macrophage − B-cells also produce memory cells, which are part of the secondary immune response • Primed and recognized antigen but don’t make antibodies. Just replicates itself • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 218 − Secondary immune response • Expose to antigen a second time • Getting memory • Have quicker response: very fast production of antibodies • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 219 − Attacking and destroying infected cells • Killer T-cells • Kill cells already infected BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes − Bind to any cell showing infection Chapter 21 • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 222 − Large part of human diet used to be from hunting and gathering − Last 10 generations post industrial age − 2-3 generations eat processed foods − Not long enough for adaptation to occur − Modern humans are not adapt to surviving long on moder n foods − Why we have chronic disease • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 223 − Notice in the early human diet, there were no grains, dairy , pressed oils or alcohol • Very lean protein • 100 different plants • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 224 − Modification of diet and lifestyle have resulted in hi gh levels of preventable chronic disease in the human population, which is projected to increase by 15-20% in the next 10 years • Chronic disease: illness or medical condition that lasts over a long period of time, it can cause long term change in the body that affects a persons functioning for at least 3 months • Examples: heart disease, obesity, arthritis • Worldwide, chronic disease accounts for 60% of all deaths • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 225 − Genetics and Lifestyle − Chronic Disease • Prevalent • Costly • Preventable − Risk factors: Behaviors and genetic factors that increase the chance of developing a disease − Modifiable risk factors: diet, behavior BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 226 − Obesity: Response to diet and physical activity • Preventable • Accounts for about 10% of all medical costs • Problem worldwide • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 227 − Overeating, eating lots of fat, lack of physical activity − Leptin: Hormone • Balances energy intake with energy expenditure • Secreted by fat cells • Decreases appetite • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 228 − The cardiovascular system • Supplies body with oxygen and nutrients, via the flow of blood • Driven by the pumping heart • The heart has 4 chambers − Right atrium: Receives low oxygenated blood form the body’s tissues and pumps it into the right ventricle − Right ventricle: Pumps low oxygenated blood to the lungs and that’s where oxygen is restored in the blood − Left atrium: Receives highly oxygenated blood from the lungs, pumps into left ventricle − Left ventricle: Largest of the chambers. Pumps blood around the whole body • Pulse: Pumping of ventricles per minute • Blood pressure: pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries due to the heart pumping − Diastolic: (lower number in BP) Pressure during ventricular relaxation − Systolic: (higher number in BP) During ventricular contraction, pumping − High blood pressure (hypertension): BP in arteries is above normal range • Healthcare professionals define high blood pressure as consistently elevated pressure 140 or higher systolic and/or 90 or higher of diastolic BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 229 − Atherosclerosis: condition involves reduced blood flow caused by build up of plaques in the walls of the arteries • Plaque build up is cause by cholesterol, fats, and calcium build up • Leads to hardening of the arteries • Very often associated with high blood pressure • Most heart attacks and strokes are caused by atherosclerosis • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 230 − Heart attacks and strokes • Both caused by a blood clot lodged in the circulatory system • Clot in the heart vessels = Heart attack • Clot in the brain = Stroke • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 231 − “Good” vs “Bad” Cholesterol • Cannot dissolve in blood by itself, must be transported in the blood by carriers called lipoproteins • Two types of lipoproteins: half fat (lipo), half protein − Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): bad cholesterol, contributes to plaque build up in arteries − High-density lipoprotein (HDL): good cholesterol, removes cholesterol bound to LDL from the arteries − When someone has a genetic predisposition to high cholesterol: • LDL receptors (proteins called LDLR) they help remove LDLs from the blood. Since they are a protein there are genes which codes for them • A mutation in the gene the codes for the LDLR reduces the number of the receptors that are produced within cells. thus end up with high cholesterol. this is an autosomal dominant trait so only one allele is needed to have the reduced number of receptors phenotype − 1 in 500 individuals are heterozygous for this allele − Individuals who are homozygous dominant have much more sever frmo of the disease with heart attack and death often occuring before age 30 -- about 1: 1,000,000 people have this form • Treatment: exercise, diet with little to no meat and only dairy products made with skim milk. medication can reduce the risks but not eliminate them. BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 232 − Age − Family history, genetics − Diet and lack of physical activities • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 23 − Cancer: family of diseases that have one thing in common, result in uncontrolled growth and reproduction of abnormal cell • Caused by mutations in one or more of the genes that regulate the steps of cell division - loss of control of cell division • Carcinogens can cause these types of mutations − Carcinogens: agents that cause genetic mutation leading to uncontrolled cell division and cancer • Examples: Tobacco smoke, UV light − Lung Cancer • 80-90% of lung cancers occur in smokers • Tobacco contains carcinogens • Cell lining the lungs are vulnerable to carcinogens • Symptoms include difficulty breathing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 235 − Cancer cells divide continuously without control because a mutation(s) disrupted normal cell division.
 • generally arise in rapidly dividing tissues − Examples: ep thial and connective tissues − Cancer cells can proliferate to form tumors • If cancer cells break off of the tumor and enter the bloodstream we call this metastasis. When this happens the tumor is considered to be malignant.
Tumor - an abnormal mass of cells resulting from uncontrolled cell division − Not all tumors are cancerous, but even non-cancerous ones grow and ultimately interfere with the function of normal cells around them. − Metastasize- the shedding of cancerous cells from tumors that move into the blood and lymph system to spread throughout the body. − Malignant tumor- a tumor that spreads throughout the body (metastisizes) - the most dangerous kind of tumor they can cause death BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 236 − Many genes work together to regulate cell division. Mutations to these genes can result in cancer. − Oncogenes- a family of genes that transfomr normal cells into tumor cells • mutated form of genes usually used to allow the cell cycle to preoceed • mutation results in uninhibited cell cycle • BOTH lead to loss of control over the cell cycle and unchecked cell division − Tumor suppressor genes: family of genes involved in regulating transcription, DNA repari and cell-cell communication • typically prevent cell division and lead to cell death (suicide of a messed up cells if you will) • mutations mean that cell division is not prevented and the cells are not killed − DNA repair genes: a gene family associated with cancers - they function to detect and repair DNA damage from mutations or other damage to DNA • Normally these function to detect and repair damaged DNA sequences - prevent mutation • Mutations to these genes result in rapid accumulation of additional mutations in other genes • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 237 − Diet modifies the risk of cancer: • Fiber and compounds from green tea, fruits, vegetables inhibit cell division. Excess hormones, insulin and fat stimulate cell division • DNA repair mechanisms need nutrients that can only be gotten in a well balanced diet • Error-free DNA replication requires folate which comes from leafy greens • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 238 − Skin cancer • Skin is the largest organ - composed of layers of epithelial tissue
 • UV radiation causes mutation in these epithelial tissues
 • Skin cancers are named for the tissue layer in which they originated (squamous, basal, melanocytes) • Cancers from melanocytes are called melanoma and may become malignant. BSC 101 Helms Finishing Notes − ABCDE of detecting skin cancer: • A. Asymmetry • B. Border • C. Color
 • D. Diameter
 E. • Evolving - changing, the mole or spot is changing relatively quickly. • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 239 − A combination of heredity and environmental factors causes some cancers. • Hereditary cancers account 5-10 % for cancers of breast, ovarian, prostate, and colon − Breast Cancer • 1 in 8 women in the US will be diagnosed with breast cancer • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 240 − A common preventative treatment for people who are at high risk of breast cancer is tamoxifen • It's also used to prevent cancer from coming back after treatment • It blocks estrogen receptors because it chemically mimics estrogen • This blocks the action of estrogen so that cells that need estrogen to continue dividing (like breast tissue cells) stop growing and die. • Coursepack: Note-taking Guides: Page 241 − Cancer treatments:
 • 1. Surgery • 2. Radiation Therapy: Medical treatment for cancer that involves the targeted use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells − Radiation can be given externally using focused beam of energy or internally using a small radioactive capsule that is placed next to the tumor − Although radiation damages both cancerous and normal cells, normal cells usually have the ability to recover whereas cancer cells die off • 3. Chemotherapy: A medical treatment for cancer that involves treating patients with drugs that destroy cancer cells by interfering with the cell growth and multiplication phases of the cell cycle − Many chemotherapy drugs come from plants, and more are discovered all the time


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