NHM 101 Notes- Week 12
NHM 101 Notes- Week 12 NHM 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Trace Minerals IRON Cofactor to many enzymes involved in making amino acids collagen hormones and neurotransmitters Most of the body s iron is found in two proteins Hemoglobin in the red blood cells Myoglobin in the muscle cells lron helps accept carry and then release oxygen Iron occurs in two forms in foods 1Heme iron oIron attached to hemoglobin oFound only in animal foods oRed meats fish poultry 2Nonheme iron oFound in both plants and animal sources oLegumes nuts and seeds oDried fruits oIron fortified foods More is absorbed when stores are low Heme iron is better absorbed than nonheme iron 25 vs 17 Many dietary factors can enhance or inhibit nonheme iron absorption Enhance MFP factor in meat fish and poultry Vitamin C Inhibit Phytates in legumes grains and rice Calcium and Phosphorus in milk EDTA a food additive Tannic acid and other polyphenols in tea and coffee RDA for men 8 mgday RDA for women of child bearing age 18 mg day RDA for women over 50 8 mgday UL 45 mgday Most common nutrient deficiency worldwide Primarily preschoolers adolescent girls and pregnant women Women more prone to deficiency due to menses oIron deficiency anemia severe depletion of iron stores results in low Hemoglobin production oPale and small red blood cells oCan t carry enough oxygen from the lungs to the tissues oFatigue weakness headaches Behavior Even at slightly lowered iron levels energy metabolism is impaired and neurotransmitter synthesis is altered reducing physical work capacity and mental productivity Pica oCurious behavior seen in some irondeficient people especially in women and children of lowincome groups oCraving and consumption of ice chalk starch and other nonfood substances ZINC Cofactor of more than 100 enzymes Involved in making genetic material and proteins Assists in immune function and in growth and development Insulin synthesis and release Sperm production and fetal development Recommendations Men 11 mgday Women 8 mgday UL 40 mgday Food sources Red meats poultry and shellfish Whole grains Deficiency Causes growth retardation Impairs immune response Damages central nervous system IODINE Part of two thyroid hormones that help regulate body temperature reproduction growth development and metabolic rate Deficiency disease goiter oEventually can cause brain damage Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may result in a birth defect called cretinism irreversible growth and mental retardation Iodized salt Seafood Bread Dairy products FLUORIDE Functions Critical for healthy bones and teeth helps teeth resist decay Food Sources Drinking water uoridated tea seafood Fluorosis oCaused by a high intake of uoride SELENIUM Functions Key antioxidant nutrient helps to prevent free radical formation Food Sources Associated with protein in foods Seafood meat whole grains fruits and vegetables in uenced by soil content Deficiency Keshan Disease a heart disease that is prevalent in regions of China where foods and soil lack selenium MANGANESE Functions Part of several enzymes that participate in the body s natural defenses against the damage of free radicals Necessary for the use of iron in making hemoglobin Food Sources Seafood nuts grains seeds legumes Deficiency Anemia MANGANESE Functions Acts as a cofactor for many enzymes that are involved in macronutrients metabolism and bone formation Antioxidant effects Food Sources Nuts whole grains leafy vegetables tea Diet and Health Modifiable Diet Physical activity Smoking Nonmodifiable Gender Age Race Family history CVD Major cause of death in US Coronary heart disease Caused by atherosclerosis in coronary arteries Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of lipids and other materials in the arteries Atherogenic diet Saturated fats Trans fats Cholesterol Low in vegetables fruits and whole grains Cholesterol and blood pressure screening Monitor LDL amp HDL cholesterol triglycerides glucose and blood pressure oLower LDL cholesterol oIncrease HDL cholesterol Lose weight if necessary Lifestyle changes Quit smoking Physical activity Healthier diet Limit saturated and trans fats Limit added sugars Limit alcohol Increase fruits vegetables and whole grains fiber potassium Increase Omega3 fatty acids Hypertension Affects 1 in 3 adults in the US Contributes to heart attacks Risk factors Increase in age Family history Obesity Salt sensitivity Alcohol Weight loss if appropriate Physical activity Reduce salt intake DASH diet Rich in fruits vegetables lowfat milk products whole grains nuts fiber potassium magnesium and calcium Low in red meat total and saturated fat sweet and sugarcontaining beverages Diabetes Typel Less common 510 of cases Autoimmune disorder Pancreas loses the ability to synthesize insulin Typically diagnosed at a young age Typ62 Most common 9095 of cases Insulin resistance Cells do not respond to insulin Highly associated with obesity Monitor carbohydrate intake Watch carbohydrate sources Choose whole grains Reduce dietary fat Weight loss amp Regular long term physical activity
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