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Week Three Notes

by: Vanessa Alpert

Week Three Notes PY 370

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PY 370 > Week Three Notes
Vanessa Alpert
GPA 3.911
History Of Psychology
Dr. Sheila R. Black

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History Of Psychology
Dr. Sheila R. Black
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Alpert on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at a university taught by Dr. Sheila R. Black in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 153 views.

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Date Created: 01/30/15
1272015 Direct Stimulation of the Brain Fritch and Hitzig physician tending soldiers at war mechanically stimulated brain and limbs started to move brain responsible for movement were able to identify the primary motor cortex through brain stimulation conducted studies on animals mainly dogs John HughlingsJackson amp David Ferrier John HughlingsJackson s wife had epilepsy John Hughlings Jackson compared brain to a gov t cortex was point of brain to allow you to exercise selfcontrol David Ferrier follows up on Fritsch and Hitzig s work found animals and inserted electrodes in the animals and stimulated portions of the brain and found the primary motor cortex and also saw movement he identified the particular region in the motor cortex and that would result in the specific movement of the bodywhat would cause handfoot etc to move amp mapped on muscles associated with senses Bartholow Mary Rafferty was feeble minded argued she could not give consent Agreed to brain stimulation B artholow drilled holes in brain Inserted needles in the brain Pt complained of pain when ulcer touched When inserted in the dura materanswered questions reported no pain Noted contractions when stimulating posterior lobes amp pt complained Despite her distress he increased the strength of the electrical stimulation She ended up frothing at the mouth and eventually lost consciousness People were outraged Aubrev Massen invented the first stereotaxic instrument for the human brain wanted to let people know exactly where certain parts of the brain were located Penf39ield performed surgeries on individuals with epilepsy brain stimulation under local anesthesiahave pt tell him what they were feeling cut out part of brain he though was affected seizures Michel Victor Pachon and Valentin DelmasMarsalet found a cortical area for reward the caudate nucleus Golgi and Cajal theory of transmission of neural impulses Staining Golgi brain stained and neurons outlined he was for the first time able to look at the brain and figure out where neurons dendrites and etc were neural impulses transfer from one neuron to the next by transferring through brain network Neurons Synapses Caj al disagreed with Golgi he though that there had to be someway for a neuron to get from the space between each neuron more accurate Nobel Prize Karl Spencer Lashley Engram Equipotentiality The apparent capacity of any intact part of a functional brain to carry out the memory functions which are lost by the destruction of other parts Concluded was that multiple parts of the brain work together for memory and retention In 1795 Cabanis concluded that consciousness ends when The head and brain are severed from the body By studying Robert Whytt concluded that re exes require an intact Decapitated frogs spinal cord The BellMagendie Law refers to The difference between dorsal and ventral spinal cord roots Charles Bell incorrectly believed that the dorsal root controls while the ventral root controls Involuntary behavior voluntary behavior How did Helmholtz experimentally confirm what Young had proposed He has subjects replicate various hues by combining red green and blue lights The research of led him to conclude that organisms generate electricity It was who suggested that the electricity is conducted by the organism Galvani Volta Phrenology was introduced by and further developed by Gali Spurzheim What positive contributions can be credited to phrenology Helped reinforce the belief that the brain is the organ of the mind led to several investigations related to localization of function emphasized individual differences in personality What did Florence mean by the term vital knot This refers to the medulla oblongata which controls respiration and the heart Flourens examinations of the cerebellum in pigeons and dogs led him to conclude it is the location responsible for Motor coordination Phineas Gage as Tan Harlow Broca Direct electrical stimulation of the brain was used in the discovery of The motor cortex Which statement best describes Flourens view of the organization of the brain There are only about give distinct structures that work together as a community Although both Ferrier and Bartholow used in their research only Bartholow used Electrical stimulation a human subject All of the following have been localized in the brain except Memory Golgi and Caj al shared the Nobel Prize for their Competing theories of neural communication Wundt s education Childhood no friends except one with a mental illness lack of love from parents minister cared about him Education Gymnasium private school that would be costly School didn t go wellfailed mostly daydreamed Graduated High School Graduated medical school with A average Top score on medical board exam Early Career Lecturer at a University Helmholtz s assistant Leipzig Taught physiological psychology New science to be objective and experimental Brass instrument psychologyelectrical stimulators timers sensory mapping devices 1292015 Getting Started Wundt father of psychology Difficult to start new discipline of psychology Applied principles physiology Immediate vs mediate experience Wundt believed immediate the domain of psychology the subjective experience an individual has when interacting with the environment telling someone how you feel mediate domain of physiology domain is measured directly with an instrumentinstrument mediates your knowledge of the phenomena listening to heart rate Used introspection but was not elemental people thought he was a reductionist Voluntarism Agreed with John Stuart Mill Wundt One can combine associations and develop an entirely new idea creative synthesis Psychology should include social relationships human development etc Psych should be an experimental science and look at topics such as religion and culture Psychology would be able to bring different disciplines of science together Data Collection Experimental observer 10000 hours of introspection practice before being a participant in experiment he felt you had to be trained in order to tell him what your sensations were and what you are feeling Wundt conducted research on a range of topics Introspection wasn t always used he always used other instruments to measure phenomena stop watches heart rate measuring visualauditory perception etc Philosophical Studies Wundt Keep track of all research in his lab Reaction time trying to figure out how accessible information is when you respond fast an idea is very accessible and there is little interference Attention focus attentionselective attn field attention Feelings rate and compare on 3D scale Associations Titchener amp Munsterberg B oth studied under Wundt Titchener dominated psychology for 2 decades wanted psych to primarily focus on sensations Titchener known for structuralism he thought he could keep using introspection and eventually find out how the mind was structured he had his participants to undergo 20000 hours of practice Titchener s rise to prominence Brilliant student Loyal to Wundt Obsessed wdetermining the elements that make up the structure of the mind Very narrow View of psychology Titchener s increasing restrictiveness 20000 hours needed to be a participant Focused on sensation Immediate experience consist of sensation images and feelings elements of consciousness Intolerance Titchener Dismissed students that didn t agree with his Views on psychology Very much against the new applied fields Side notes Rationalism information starts with you inside of you PlatoSocrates you were born with inborn knowledge that was necessary for you naVigate through the world Knowledge about time and space Kant knowledge about God etc you were NOT born a blank slate Socratic method someone ie teacher is supposed to bring knowledge you already have out by skillfully asking questions and you get the answer by the knowledge you already have within you Imperialism experience shapes you Lockeblank slate


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