Education Notes SOC 201S
Popular in AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Popular in Sociology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asif Khan on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 201S at Old Dominion University taught by JONATHAN W LOPEZ in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
Reviews for Education Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/15/15
Education Notes Education in Society Education-A social institution dedicated to the formal process of transmitting culture and other important knowledge to members of society. As a society, we invest time and money in education because we believe the individual and collective benefits are worth it. o Path to knowledge and understanding. o Means of ensuring fairness and opportunity. History of education in U.S. is one of expansion and institutionalization. o From 1940 to 2012, proportion of people with a high school diploma increased from 25% to 88%. o Percentage with a college degree rose from 5% to 31%. Sociological Perspectives on Education Education offers opportunity and helps establish social order. o Also reinforces existing beliefs, values, and norms that justify the status quo (func theory). Transmitting Culture o Schools preserve and maintain dominant culture (conf theory). Teach respect for existing values and norms and reverence for established institutions. Promote social integration. Provide experiences that unify diverse groups. Training and Social Control o Teach students manners, punctuality, creativity, discipline, and responsibility. o Stimulate cultural innovation. College provides a context within which we can challenge existing ideas and try out new practices. Serve as meeting ground where people can share diverse beliefs and traditions. Childcare o Schools take responsibility for children during the school day, effectively freeing parents to participate in the labor force. All of the above would be func theory. Education and Inequality (conf theory) o Significant inequalities exist in education opportunities available to different groups. Wide disparities in funding and facilities between urban and suburban schools. o Hidden Curriculum-Standards of behavior deemed proper by society and that teachers subtly communicate to students. Prepares students to submit to authority. Could be func or conf theory depending on how one looks at it. Teacher Expectancy (Interaction theory) o Teacher-Expectancy Effect-Impact that a teacher’s expectations about student performance may have on actual student achievements. Student outcomes can become self-fulfilling prophecy based on how teachers perceive students. Bestowal of Status o Ideally, education selects those with ability and trains them for skilled positions (func theory). In practice, people are also picked based on social class, race, ethnicity, and gender (conf theory). o Tracking-Practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria. Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation (conf theory). o Correspondence Principle-Tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and prepare students for the types of jobs typically held by their class (conf theory). Credentialism o Credentialism-An increase in the lowest level of education required to enter a field. o Fifty years ago, a high school diploma was enough to get a good job. Today, it often takes a college diploma to get that same job. o One potential effect of credentialism is to reinforce social inequality (conf theory). Gender o 20th-century educational sexism: Stereotypes in textbooks. Pressure on women to study traditional women’s subjects. Unequal funding for men’s and women’s athletic programs. Employment bias for administrators and teachers. o Today women have much greater educational opportunity, largely as a result of women’s movements. Schools as Formal Organizations The Bureaucratization of Schools o Schools put into practice Weber’s five principles of bureaucracy: Division of labor. Hierarchy of authority. Written rules and regulations. Impersonality. Employment based on technical qualifications. o Trend toward more centralized education particularly affects disadvantaged people. o Bureaucratization of schools can lead to student and teacher “apathy” and discontent. Teaching as a Profession o Teachers encounter conflicts inherent in serving as a professional within the context of a bureaucracy. Level of formal schooling is high. Salaries lower than those with comparable education. Overall prestige has declined. o Many teachers, disappointed and frustrated, leave educational world for other professions. Shortage of teachers. Tracking o Three distinctive tracks among college students: Collegiate Academic Vocational Community Colleges o Give students chance to prove themselves. o Relatively low cost and open enrollment lower the barriers to success. As of 2011, over 7 million community college students. These students more likely to be older, female, Black, Hispanic, low- income, and part-time, compared to their peers at four-year schools. Homeschooling o More than 1.5 million children being educated at home. 36% of parents motivated by desire to provide religious or moral instruction, and 83% identified it as important. Rise in homeschooling points toward a growing dissatisfaction with the institutionalized practice of education. New forms of schooling may meet individual needs of diverse groups, but they undermine historical commitment to public education as a means of fostering unity within society.