Week 6 Notes - ES 101
Week 6 Notes - ES 101 ES 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ES 101 at University of Oregon taught by Fujiwara L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethnic Studies in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Border Politics 11/2/15 (Day 10) - Question: - When you hear the phrase “the border,” what do you think of? What do you visualize? - US Mexico border / Long lines of cars - Media of people crossing illegally - Where did these images & thoughts come from? - Gloria Anzaldúa (1942 2004) - Amazing scholar - Focuses on who is wanted & who is not - “The Border” - “This is my home this thin edge of Barbwire” Gloria Anzaldúa - very theoretical - The USMexican border es una herida abierta where the Third World grates against the first and bleeds.” - Borderlands – Border Theory - As state of mind – consciousness - Oppositional Consciousness - Cultural mixture – hybridity – Mestizaje - Decolonial imaginary - Mestiza Consciousness - Divisive space – belonging - Inclusion / exclusion – resistance - Border is pretty set, you know which side you belong on - Borderland - “Borders are set up to define the places that are safe and unsafe, to distinguish us from them. A border is a dividing line, a narrow strip along a steep edge. A borderland is a vague and undetermined place created by the emotional residue of an unnatural boundary. The prohibited and forbidden are its inhabitants.” (“The Homeland, Aztlán” 25) - History - 1821; Mexico independent from Spain - 1845; Texas annexed to US (Alamo) - 18461848; MexicanAmerican War – US claims ~ ½ of Mexico’s territory - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo = forced Mexico to give California, New Mexico, & Arizona to US Border Politics 11/2/15 (Day 10) - Politics of the Border - 1848 – border drawn - 1,951 miles - “The border fence that divides the Mexican people was born on Feb 2, 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It left 100,000 Mexican citizens on this side, annexed by conquest along with the land.” (29) - Open Period (1848 1920) - More fluidity - Closed Period (1930 US Economic Crisis) - Great Depression - AntiMexican settlement: Pres. Herbert Hoover blamed the Depression on presence of Mexican immigrants - Routine round up of Mexican & repatriation to Mexico, forcing them to take their Americanborn children - Close to 500,000 repatriated - Open Period (1940 1965) - Bracero Program WWII & Post WWII need for unskilled & semiskilled laborers - Beginning in 1942, Bracero program although only supposed to only last through war years, its usefulness as a ready source of cheap labor allowed program to exist until 1964 - Provided work permits / did not have to go through same visa for entry to US - Carefully negotiated between Mexican & US governments - Congress weakly enforced law - Bracero Life - Highly exploitative - Got sick, went home - Closing – 1954 “Operation Wetback” - Succeeded in deporting over 1 million Mexicano SW residents in militant & brutal fashion - When Bracero program ended, suddenly those here working legally were here illegally & were fair game for deportation / harassment - Labor still in need; did not stop farmers & agribusiness from openly recruiting & hiring laborers Border Politics 11/2/15 (Day 10) - Militarization of the Border - Present day – in light of contemporary economic recession - Operation Gatekeeper: Oct 1, 1994; new initiative - According to US Border Patrol, ~ 4,000 died crossing US border between 1998 & 2004 - NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement - Established in 1994 between US, Mexico, & Canada - Gives corporations rights @ expense of democracy - Deunionize workers & eliminate workers rights - Eliminate price controls - Freedom of movement for capital, goods, & services - Maquila Workers - ave. worker made ~ $25 $35 (USD) / week - must work 4 hours a week to buy 2 lbs. of beans - must work 11.5 hours to buy box of diapers - female workers = never free form fear of sexual harassment - females might be forced to use birth control - spontaneous abortions due to toxic chemicals are common - Free Trade Zones (FTZ) - Export Processing Zones - Eliminates trade barriers, tariffs; provides tax breaks - Multinational transnational corporations set up factories - 2003; 116 FTZ employing 43 million - “A Nation of Immigrants” - “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to be free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless tempesttost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!” - Early Immigration – Assimilationist Framework - European mass migration (1850 1914) - Large German & British population - 17.2 million between 1901 & 1925 (peak) - growing concern over assimilability of E & S Europeans - US National Culture Border Politics 11/2/15 (Day 10) - “the American nation has always had a specific ethnic core. And that core has been white.” Peter Brimelow, Alien Nation - Nativism: “race hatred & panic” - Way of defining “us” vs. “them” along lines of formal citizenship - Law incorporates nativism by: 1. Preventing entry of “undesirable” immigrants 2. Subordinate immigrants already living in US - White Privilege - “Immigrants from Sweden, Denmark, Norway, & Finland, who according to the 1910 census comprised of 40 percent of Oregon’s population” (23) - Similar to Oregon (California) - Rep. Higby of CA stated in response to a proposed amendment concerning Chinese immigrants in CA: - “The Chinese are nothing but a pagan race. They are an enigma to me, although I have lived among them for fifteen years. You cannot make good citizens of them; they do not learn the language of the country; and you can communicate with them only with the greatest difficulty, as their language is the most difficult of all those spoken.” - AntiJapanese in Oregon - “In 1907, a mob of Woodburn stormed the quarters of Japanese workers and demanded their dismissal, claiming that they worked for substandard wages and took jobs away from white workers.” (25) - Immigrant Acts: Asiatic Exclusion - Naturalization Act of 1790 – “only free white persons can naturalize” - 1875 – Page Act - 1880 – Chinese Exclusion - 1906 – Gentleman’s Agreement - 1917 – Asiatic Barred Zone Act - 1924 – All Aliens ineligible for citizenship - 1924 National Origins Act - # of immigrants allowed into US = reduced to 2% in 1890 census Border Politics 11/2/15 (Day 10) - The Passing of the Great Race (1916 by Madison Grant) - Eugenist ideas of racial superiority - Reproduction - Concern offspring - Racial hygiene - Impact of 1924 law - Being in US illegally = crime - Bracero Workers in Oregon - As a result of Bracero Program, # of Mexicans in Oregon increased tenfold to 15,000 between 1940 & 1945 - 2013 Census - almost 500,000 Latinos in Oregon (~12%) - 14 largest in US - of these who identify as Latinos, 63% were born in US from Guatemala, Puerto Rico, Cuba, El Salvador, & Dominican Republic - PCUN (Pineros y Campesinos Unidos del Noroeste) - Established in 1985 - Made for farmworkers in Oregon - Precious Knowledge - How did we see a borderlands operating within the struggles against movement to end Ethnic Studies in Tucson School District? - What are some key factors under consideration? - History - Language - Culture - Beliefs - Educational Borderlands - For MexicanAmerican Studies in Tucson, AZ; must draw connections to persistent immigration politics. HB 2281 - Prop 187 (CA ‘94) - Illegal Immigration Reform & Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996; federal (IIRIRA) - 2005 Sensenbrenner Bill - felony to be an illegal immigrant / to assist them - SB 1070 – Show your Papers (AZ) Border Politics 11/2/15 (Day 10) - Prop 187 – Save our State Initiative - Daniel HoSang – “The Ideological Alchemy of Contemporary Nativism” - What was it? - Passed by majority of workers - AntiImmigrant Discourse
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