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Week of November 9 - November 13

by: Grey Garris

Week of November 9 - November 13 HI 1063

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > History > HI 1063 > Week of November 9 November 13
Grey Garris
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Early US History
Andrew Lang
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grey Garris on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HI 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Andrew Lang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Early US History in History at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 11/15/15
HI 1063    I. The Antebellum North  A. Approaching the Antebellum North ­ Slavery had once existed in the North but it died out as it was  not economically profitable. Northern skepticism of slavery also grew from the religious aspect in  viewing it as the cruel and disgusting thing it was.  B. The Market Revolution  1. Scale of Economic Change ­ There was a significant change in the relationship between  people and money as well as the market itself. There was a more diversified and powerful  market.  2. Free Labor and Mobility ­ The Market was viewed as a way to defend the common man as  able to move up or down (economically) in society as he chose. Believed in the ability to  change one’s own status. This differed from the South in that mobility was attributed to the  Market instead of slaveholding.  3. Progress ­ The make­yourself idea grew. Manifest Destiny came about and when the two  sides (North and South) moved to the West together their ideas didn’t mix very well.  C. National Change to National Reform ­ The time period of 1815 to 1840 saw signiciant and rapid  societal change. This kind of rapid change tends to make people nervous.   D. Anti­Slavery Movement ­ The Democratic society gave the majority of people that supported  slavery more control over the system than the minority of people who wanted to see it gone.   1. Problem of Anti­Slavery and Race ­ The movement was built on factions of ideas. Nobody  could ignore the fact that since this was racial slavery they would have to address whether  the races were equal or not.   2. Colonization and Gradualism ­ As part of the Anti­Slavery movement, there became a  concept that freed blacks should be returned to Africa in an American effort at  colonization. This idea was headed by the American Colonization Society and was  created and composed of leading statesmen including John Marshall, James Monroe, and  Henry Clay. The people who favored this idea were becoming fearful of the growth of  slavery as well as the slave revolts that were occurring, such as the Haitian Revolt that  overthrew the French and established their own government, the Denmark Vesey  Rebellion, and Nat Turner’s. There was also a Gradualist sentiment as it was believed that  it would be impossible to end slavery all at once. The change would have to be slow.  E. Abolitionism ­ The radical and opposing view to the Anti­Slavery movement. Refused the idea of  colonization and wanted slavery’s end to be immediate as it was a moral issue.  1. Roots of Radical Abolitionism ­ The religious arguments of Protestantism and Evangelism  that were for the helping and protection of other people aided movement. The people who  were Gradualists learned that the South would never succumb to a slow change and they  would never be willing to change their society. Great Britain had become completely  committed to the abolitionist movement and slave revolts were also a key factor.  2. William Lloyd Garrison ­ Arguably one of the most important Abolitionists. He was a  Gradualist till he realized the South’s stubbornness. He created the newspaper ​ The  Liberator and it ran until a week after the passage of the 13th Amendment. He was known  for publicly burning copies of the Constitution for the fact that it allowed slavery to exist.  F. Anti­Slavery vs. Abolitionism ­ It was realized that only political action would work against an  institution like slavery and doing so would be difficult due to Congress and the legality of such  action.  1. Contemporary Impact of Abolitionism ­ There were many murders of abolitionists, chaos  and violence escalated and there was a growing hatred for those who worked around the  law.  2. Historical Impact of Abolitionism ­ Garrison himself understood that he should continue  shouting because his ideas would take root somewhere no matter what. The idea was that  slavery was wrong enough to prevent its spread and America could not hold two positions  on the issue anymore.    X. Territorial Expansion and War, 1841 ­ 1848  I. Foreign Policy Under John Tyler ­ Very much an expansionist viewpoint.   A. Settling Problems with Great Britain ­ Initial expansion into the West was just the solving of old  arguments, mainly the American­Canadian Border. A Treaty created the modern border and there  was still an argument over a small area of the Oregon Country (Far Northwest).  B. Texas ­ The biggest focus of the Tyler administration at that time. The problem was that since the  Republic of Texas (which had declared its independence from Mexico but was too weak to protect  itself) had asked for stateship but was so huge it extended over the 36­30 Line that determined a  state’s status as to slavery.   1. American Settlement ­ Texas had been settled by American settlers (in some areas) but  Mexican rule claimed control over the area.  2. Revolution ­ from 1835­36 the Texas military fought against the Mexican military and lost a  lot due to not being anywhere near as well trained or equipped but still made themselves  independent.   3. Question of Annexation ­ Mexico never recognized Texas’ independence and continually  invaded the area and seized land holdings. Americans wanted to expand but Texas would  cause an issue about slavery and the 36­30 line. After 8 years of arguing a Treaty was  created that set Texas as a Territory until Calhoun supports its full annexation due to it  being “essential to expand slavery as a moral necessity.”  II. Expansionism and the Election of 1844 ­ Polk won because he understood Manifest Destiny’s power and the  expansionists.  A. Henry Clay ­ The Great Compromiser of the Whigs. He was opposed to the annexation of Texas  but not other regions.  B. James K. Polk ­ Viewed as the newer Jackson but with less national appeal. He was the  Democrats runner and the embodiment of the expansionist ideals.   1. Manifest Destiny ­ The idea that westward expansion was ordained by God.   C. Texas Annexation of 1845 ­ Texas was admitted to the Union and the Democrats counted it as a  victory but the issue grew even more tense.  III. Mexican­American War, 1845­46  A. Causes  1. Texas ­ Mexico had never recognized Texas as independent and neither side wanted to  fight first but there was a huge problem over the boundary lines.   2. California ­ The Mexican owned territory held huge interest for Polk as it was a massive  increase in land and a way to jump the economy due to its access to the Pacific.  B. Diplomacy ­ Neither side wanted a war over Texas at first. An American Ambassador was sent to  Mexico to reopen negotiations and offer $25 Million for the land but the Mexican government was  having issues at the time and couldn’t really do much with the ambassador. Once the newer  government was formed, they refused to negotiate at all and the ambassador was sent home,  furious. Later there was a small group of Mexican soldiers who fought a small American cavalry  and when American soldiers died it was a spark for war.  C. Conduct of the War ­ There was a huge call for volunteers and a large number came. Lincoln and  his allies accused Polk of lying about the fight so that he could justify the war but there was pretty  much nothing they could do. The Army was smaller and less trained than the Mexican Army but still  managed to win. Eventually Mexico City was seized in 1848 and the war ended.  D. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 ­ The Americans got what they demanded, including Texas and  all the territory west of it. In return Mexico got $15 Million.  E. A “Dose of Arsenic” ­ Before the war even started Ralph Waldo Emerson stated that the US would  beat Mexico but the whole thing would poison America because of slavery and the oversized  concept of Manifest Destiny.    XI. Crisis and Compromise of 1850  I. Territorial Expansion and Expansion of Slavery ­ Three main questions to think about: How would the Crisis  be dealt with?, Should the Compromise even be considered a Compromise? the answer is no but anyway,  and Does political Compromise ever even work?  A. Five Positions on the Issue Arose  1. Wilmot Proviso, 1846 ­ before the war even began a Congressman went to the floor and  proposed that any potential territory would be closed to slavery. the proposition failed due  to Southern Opposition.  a) Natural Limits of Slavery ­ It was believed that slavery couldn’t survive in the west  because the area wasn’t the right land for agriculture. The argument against that  idea was that slavery was flexible and the needs for it would change and adapt to  the new area.  2. Southern Stance ­ They saw the efforts being made against slavery as attacks on their  honor because they made the point that slavery was wrong. Jefferson Davis picked up  Calhoun’s mantle and said that Congress was made by law to protect the property of its  citizens.  


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