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by: Abby Klinker

week3.pdf ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition

Abby Klinker
GPA 2.5
ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition

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Week 3 notes for Animal Science 221: Animal Nutrition. Topics include: Ideal Protein, Amino Acids,Vitamins (A,D). I do Great Notes, In the red is the Most important notes for exams and quizzes.
ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Klinker on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition at Purdue University taught by Forsyth in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views.

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Date Created: 01/30/15
week 3 Ideal Protein would just exactly meet the essential amino acid needs of the animal with none in excess and with the right level of non essential amino acids would contain 100 as much leucine and lysine 5 as much isoleucine as lysine would contain 33 as much histidine as lysine Amino Acid availabilityl digestibility not all Amino acids in feed are available Digestibility is confused by microbial synthesis in large intestine Therefore availability has to be determined at the end of the small intestine if in feces not digested if not in feces digested Form L vrs D CHO is the D form Dextrcrctatcry non active Amino acids L form levcrctary active MET methionine we are lucky both are active DL so synthetic form very practical NPN Nonprotein Nitrogen ruminants can use NPN because the bacteria in rumen can use it to build their own amino acids Functions of dietary Proteins supply the needed amino acids for the body to make its own protein if present in excess it will then supply energy amino acids are the building blocks of protein amino acids are composed of CHON SP amino acids always have NH2 Glycine hasjusta hydrogen for Rgroup Not essential Essential baby ChiCkS 2 carbon Alanine Methyl Group 3 carbon notessen al valine essen al branched Chain amino acid Leucine abundant in corn proteins L isomer has biological value ideal protein would contain 100 as much leuoine and lysine isoleucine branched Chain amino acid ideal protein 5 as much isoleucine as lysine Phenylalanine not tolerated by people with inborn errors of PHE metabolism babies especially babies given PKU at birth to test methionine sulfur portion of requirement can be met from cystine sulfur amino acid both d and l isomers are biologically active consequently been synthesized and can be economically purchased for adding to diets involved in synthesis of many important compound in body epinephrine and choline by participating in acting as a methyl donor Tryptophan second most limiting amino acids in corn diets for pigs used from vitamin niacin aiding sleep skatole and indole can be formed from its breakdown in large intestine by bacteria producing oder histidine contains imidazole group precursor of histamine arginine precursor of urea in body is the form in which N is removed from mamsl so normal breakdown of protein and deamination of amino acids will result in urea formation which in return needs arginine lysine most limiting amino acid in corn and grains for swine and poultry it can be supplemented in the synthetic form and this is often economical replacing a portion of the protein needed L isomer is biologically active 1O essential amino acids PVT TIM HALL methionine phenylalanine 39 hi5tidine vaIine arglnlne threonine 39 lySine tryptophan IGUCine isoleucine how do the amino acids differ from what is in DNA dna is composed of purines Nucleic acids adenine purines and 39 Q a e pyrimidines pyrimidines cytosme thymine Vitamins classification Water soluble Fat soluble Vitamins o Involved in o ADEK intermediary 0 take care of metabolism structur of body 0 vitamin C o B complex Thiamine Bi 0 BZ o Niacin 0 B6 0 812 o Folic Acid 0 Choline o Pantothenic Acid 0 Biotin Vitamin A 3 forms Retinol retinal retinoio acid Precursor Carotene Funo on protects epithelial tissue skin eyes lining of liver introduction to Vitamin A 1 Chemically known as Retinol 2 unsaturated monohydric alcohol 3 pale yellow crystalline solid a insoluble in water b soluble in fats 4 readily destroyed by oxidation on exposure of air and light 5 does not occur in plants but rather a precursor Carotene pigments Sources Vitamin A wN 0quot Liver rich source egg yolk milk fat are rich green forages well made hays and legume grass silage are good source grains except corn low activity animal products are poor source provitamins A includes alpha and beta and y carotene and cryptoxanthin B most important is beta carotene a red color b green feeds excellent source C conversion to Vitamin A a occurs in intestinal wall and liver and possibly in kidney and lungs b in theory one molecule of carotene should yield two molecules of A c efficiency is below expected Vitamin A Defined one U of VA activity of 300 ug of crystalline vitamin A alcohol efficiency of conversion varies by animals species beta carotene vitamin A U rat 1000 1667 poultry 1000 1667 beef cattle 1000 400 sheep 1000 480 swine 1000 533 dairy 1000 400 horses 1000 555333 dogs 1000 833 metabolism Vision night blindness the adaption to change in light reconstitution of Rhodopsin to prevent night blindness ability to see in dim light depends on rate of resynthesis of Rhodopsin Rhodopsin formation is impaired where A is deficient Vitamin A deficiency night blindness Xerophthalmia Metaplasia Deficiency symptoms Adult Ewes cattle Pigs eye disorders xerophthalmia blind deformed Iitters impaired appetite growth THIS IS TRUE IN ALL THE DEFICIENCIES OF VITAMINS mild night blindness rough hair scaly skin prolonged development of xerophthaImia criticizing the eyes constriction of the optic nerve canal in calves poultry Infertility In breeding animals abortions 39 high mortallty increased susceptibility of infectionated 39 retarded QrOWth weakness Staggermg calves Qalt reduced egg production hatchery night blindness weak or dead Iambs supplementation over injection high levels of supplemented by Vitamin A fg on becomes toxic to grain mix the bOdy salt or mineral mix you can build up complete diet the supply and 39 feed 3 camtene create storage l39lCh dlet Fat soluble vitamin problems ruminants Swine deficiency may deficiency may occur when occur when Pastures are POOF concentrate feeds 39 high cereal are extremely rations not com poor sources Vitamin D def Necessary to use CaP deficiency causes Rickets active form 125 dihydroxycholecalciferol can be gotten from sun through skin form plants D2 AnimalsD3D2 Poultry and cats Need D3 Vitamin D as a Hormone hormone sub produced in one part then speculates the body targeting effects of other parts of the body sun to skin activated by UV from 7dehydrocholesterol in the skin goes to liver in liver Hydroxylated in the 1 position goes to kidneys were hydroxylated into the 25 position which forms 125 dihydroxy cholecalciferol Active Form activation by sunlight ergosterol plant uv light280297 D2 form 7dehydrocholesterol animal uv at 280297 D3 not active form uv light imparts energy to open bond uv light decreases as one moves away from tropics cannot pass through window glass more effective in animals with light skin metabolism facilitates deposition of CaP in bone increases the absorption of CaP from intestine deficiency symptoms young animals pigs rickets with weak easily broken enlarged joints broken bones bones bowed legs stiffness ofjoints occasional young cattle FarahSis swollen knees and hocks and POU39W arching back soft rubber bones breakage retarded growth bowed legs older animals reduced egg production osteomalacia Units of Vitamin D one U of vit D 025 macro grams of pure crystalline irradiated 7dehydrocholesterol D3 Active problems Pigs poultry need vita D greater than cattle and sheep animals housed indoors may need supplements more vitamin D may be helpful managing milk fever SOUFCGS most feeds for pigs and poultry are poor sources cod and fish liver oils are good source sun cured hays are good source irradiated yeast is a good source of D2 excessive Vitamin D high doses mobilize CaP from tissues causing vitamin D rickets it may cause deposition of Ca salts in arteries various organs and tissues Fat soluble too much in body may become toxic


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