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Rome, Week 7 Lectures

by: Sarah Doberneck

Rome, Week 7 Lectures History 1A

Sarah Doberneck

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Lecture notes from week 7 about the foundations and creation of Rome
Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
Dr. Phillips
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 11/15/15
The city of Rome  Situated in central Italy, inland from the Mediterranean Sea on the Tigris river  Surrounded by hills  Ideal situation o Allowed for high places and citadels o Central location o Access to fresh water o Access to the sea for trade  The ancestors of the Romans were believed to be Trojans, who had lost the Trojan war o Anneius was told by the gods to go and found a new city o He founded the city lacin  Mars, the God of war, impregnated by a woman and had two children named Romulus and Remus o Romulus and Remus were abandoned, but were saved by a she-wolf who gave them to a shepherd to raise them o They eventually founded the city of Rome o Romulus kills Remus because Remus jumped over his wall and Romulus wanted to declare that anyone who came over his wall would be killed  Archeological evidence o The city of Rome was founded on the Palatine in 756 o The Latins were the people living in this area  Etruscans o We don't know much about them, including origin and language o According to Herodotus, they were immigrants from Asia Minor o Others claim they are indigenous to Italy o We know it's not an indo European language o Religion  Sacrificed an animal, the liver contained signed that predicted the future o More advanced than many other people of this time  Their kings ruled Rome for some time through the end of the Roman Empire  Some think that the Romans got their alphabet from them. Who got it from the Greek colonists in the area  Greek influence o Colonists gave the Romans the idea of city states based on the Greek polis o They also gave them the alphabet, and therefore literacy Political development  In early times, Rome was ruled by kings (753-509) o There is an early list of 7 kings, which most scholars don't accept as is o Shows that it was in fact a monarchy o Also confirms that there were Etruscan kings toward the end of the monarchy  Kingship o The king had religious and military power  Senate o Council of advisors from the king o Started with men from the leading families of Rome o Couldn't pass laws, it's function was simply to advise when asked o When the king died, the senate had royal power until the next king was chosen  Assembly o Met when summoned by the king o Had some law making powers  Late monarchy o 2/3 of the last kings were Etruscan o We know this based on their names that are traditionally Etruscan At this time Rome was flourishing o Most important reform was the reorganization of the royal army  Extends citizenship for the purpose of getting more soldier  Puts people into 12 separate tribes  Your tribe determined how much you were taxed  Age groups in the classes, juniors and seniors  Citizens were brigaded into centuries of 100 men  Wealthy ones were Calvary because they were the only ones with enough money to have and maintain horses, actually had fewer than 100 men each  Middle class was infantry  Lowest class was support groups, such as carpenters, blacksmiths etc. Roman family and class structure  We get the word family from the Roman word familia  More extensive than our families today, Included immediate family, spouses, slaves  Men Had multiple names o First was given name and then the name of their gent o Then included their given name, gent name, and name for their gent division o Women normally only had one name, which would be the feminine version of the gent name  Porcius turns into porcia  More than one daughter, becomes porcia 1, porcia 2, etc.  Strictly patriarchal o The oldest living make of the family had basically absolute power o In theory, he could put to death any member of the familia o In practice, almost none ever killed their dependents  Customary to consult other important men and women in the family before making any important decisions  Patron and client o Patrons San clients formed bonds sanctified by both law and custom o Patricians and plebeians o Origin is in economic and necessity o Patrons would try to get the most clients o Characterizes the internal and external Roman Empire  The romans see their allies as their clients and they the patrons  This means that Rome needed to protect the ally and the ally needed to pay them  Patricians o Tended to be wealthier than plebeians  Plebeians o Pretend political power o Real political power Roman religion  Noumena was the belied that  Above all the spirits reigned Jupiter, who was the equivalent of Zeus  Borrowed Greek and Etruscan gods o Ended up borrowing the entire pantheon o Some were changed, like how o Others were unchanged like Apollo  Reead omens from the flights of birds  Fed the sacred chickens  Thought both gods and humans had reciprocal obligations that they were responsible for o Humans were responsible for strict following of rituals o Gods owed them prosperity Expansion of Rome  Begins with the transition from monarchy to republic o 508/7, the Romans dispose of their last king o The new chief magistrates were two men elected annually. With the name of consuls Rise of Roman power  Following the deposition of the monarchy, the Romans are threatened by other Latin speaking cities around then  To reassert their dominance over the league, a treaty is drawn confirming them as being the heading city  Outside Latium, other countries were encroaching on their territory resulting in a lot of small border quarrels  Livy relates a highly dubious tradition that the siege of Veii lasted 11 years  Gallic invasion 390 or 387/6 o Galls attack Rome o Rome barely wins because the war because the geese of Juno warn them of a surprise attack o Galls demand 1000 pounds of gold  Latin league o Continues to resent Roman leadership o After the Gallic invasion, many of the states defected from the league but Rome brought them back in o Rome gave the citizens of allied cities more rights in their country o Not everyone was satisfied so some still rebelled (340-338) o Rome won and the league was no longer in existence, it was just Rome in control of a large area  Samnite war o First war (343-341)  Didn't result in much gain on either side o Second (326-304)  Infamous because afterwards, the Roman soldiers had to walk under the yoke of the victorious Samnites, which was considered very shameful and embarrassing for the Romans o Third (298-275)  Rome won  Samnites were forced to surrender and become Roman allies  After the Samnites, Rome continues to expand throughout Italy  Tarentine War (280-275): Pyrrhus of Epirus  By , all of the Italian peninsula is bound to Rome either by conquest or ally Organization of Italy  Latin allies o Included several towns in Latium, colonies founded by the Latin league, and new colonies founded by Rome after the dissolution of the Latin league o Enjoyed rights of local autonomy (govern itself, make its own laws), commerce and intermarriage, and could vote in the Roman plebeian assembly also could become Roman citizens by leaving a son of military age in their home town  Italian allies o The rest of the conquered and allied peoples of Italy o Each had their own separate testy with rom that outlines their rights and expectations o Obligation to provide military support o Agreement yielding control of foreign policy to the Roman senate o Could do business with Romans and intermarry o Served as auxiliary units in the Roman army o Enjoyed internal autonomy in domestic government and law  Reasons for Romes success o The Romans adapt their terms of alliance in a case by case basis depending on the needs of the Romans themselves and the capabilities of their allies o Effective public relations  The terms of peace usually showed some leniency toward conquered foes  In war they could be merciless o Cohesion  Established cohesion among the diverse peoples of Italy who eventually all began to think of themselves as Italians rather than Etruscans, Latins, etc.  Provides them with a solid home base when at war with non Italian people Internal development of the Roman state  The king was replaced by two consuls o Equal partners, each exercising veto power over the others decision o Annually elected, new rulers each year o Collegiality And annuality are two new characteristics of government it seen before  Incorporate in the other offices  praetors  aediles  Quaestors  Only could go from be aedile if you had been a quaestor  Dictator o During a time of emergency and conflict, the people would elect a dictator who could serve a maximum of 6 months o L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, ca. 460  Farmer in Rome  Elected as dictator, went and defeated the enemy, resigned after 16 days  Roman legions o Flexibility over those hoplite o Rearmed and reequipped  Javelins and short thrusting sword called a gladious The struggle of the orders  Dominated Roman domestic policy for over 2 centuries  First secession of the Pleps in 490 o Plebeian troops went on strike and went to a sacred mountain o The Roman army is now left powerless because most troops were plebeians o On the mountain, chose two people to be tribunes  Tribunes were the champions for their cause and were protected by the gods o Pressed for the codification and publication of Roman law  Wanted to prevent magistrates from not properly administrating justice  450 the twelve tables o Written by a committee of 5 patricians and 5 plebeians o No real innovation in their laws, the innovation was that they were publish and everyone knew exactly what the law was o Primitive code representing the values and culture of an agrarian society  Debt was a large problem but the tables didn't do anything to alleviate that  If a person sang or wrote an offensive song they would be clubbed  Intermarriage between patricians and plebeians was banned, but this law was rescinded after 5 years o Livy refers to the 12 tables as the source of all private and public law o Remained the foundation of Roman law for hundreds of years


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