Rome, Week 7 Lectures
Rome, Week 7 Lectures History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
Reviews for Rome, Week 7 Lectures
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/15/15
The city of Rome Situated in central Italy, inland from the Mediterranean Sea on the Tigris river Surrounded by hills Ideal situation o Allowed for high places and citadels o Central location o Access to fresh water o Access to the sea for trade The ancestors of the Romans were believed to be Trojans, who had lost the Trojan war o Anneius was told by the gods to go and found a new city o He founded the city lacin Mars, the God of war, impregnated by a woman and had two children named Romulus and Remus o Romulus and Remus were abandoned, but were saved by a she-wolf who gave them to a shepherd to raise them o They eventually founded the city of Rome o Romulus kills Remus because Remus jumped over his wall and Romulus wanted to declare that anyone who came over his wall would be killed Archeological evidence o The city of Rome was founded on the Palatine in 756 o The Latins were the people living in this area Etruscans o We don't know much about them, including origin and language o According to Herodotus, they were immigrants from Asia Minor o Others claim they are indigenous to Italy o We know it's not an indo European language o Religion Sacrificed an animal, the liver contained signed that predicted the future o More advanced than many other people of this time Their kings ruled Rome for some time through the end of the Roman Empire Some think that the Romans got their alphabet from them. Who got it from the Greek colonists in the area Greek influence o Colonists gave the Romans the idea of city states based on the Greek polis o They also gave them the alphabet, and therefore literacy Political development In early times, Rome was ruled by kings (753-509) o There is an early list of 7 kings, which most scholars don't accept as is o Shows that it was in fact a monarchy o Also confirms that there were Etruscan kings toward the end of the monarchy Kingship o The king had religious and military power Senate o Council of advisors from the king o Started with men from the leading families of Rome o Couldn't pass laws, it's function was simply to advise when asked o When the king died, the senate had royal power until the next king was chosen Assembly o Met when summoned by the king o Had some law making powers Late monarchy o 2/3 of the last kings were Etruscan o We know this based on their names that are traditionally Etruscan At this time Rome was flourishing o Most important reform was the reorganization of the royal army Extends citizenship for the purpose of getting more soldier Puts people into 12 separate tribes Your tribe determined how much you were taxed Age groups in the classes, juniors and seniors Citizens were brigaded into centuries of 100 men Wealthy ones were Calvary because they were the only ones with enough money to have and maintain horses, actually had fewer than 100 men each Middle class was infantry Lowest class was support groups, such as carpenters, blacksmiths etc. Roman family and class structure We get the word family from the Roman word familia More extensive than our families today, Included immediate family, spouses, slaves Men Had multiple names o First was given name and then the name of their gent o Then included their given name, gent name, and name for their gent division o Women normally only had one name, which would be the feminine version of the gent name Porcius turns into porcia More than one daughter, becomes porcia 1, porcia 2, etc. Strictly patriarchal o The oldest living make of the family had basically absolute power o In theory, he could put to death any member of the familia o In practice, almost none ever killed their dependents Customary to consult other important men and women in the family before making any important decisions Patron and client o Patrons San clients formed bonds sanctified by both law and custom o Patricians and plebeians o Origin is in economic and necessity o Patrons would try to get the most clients o Characterizes the internal and external Roman Empire The romans see their allies as their clients and they the patrons This means that Rome needed to protect the ally and the ally needed to pay them Patricians o Tended to be wealthier than plebeians Plebeians o Pretend political power o Real political power Roman religion Noumena was the belied that Above all the spirits reigned Jupiter, who was the equivalent of Zeus Borrowed Greek and Etruscan gods o Ended up borrowing the entire pantheon o Some were changed, like how o Others were unchanged like Apollo Reead omens from the flights of birds Fed the sacred chickens Thought both gods and humans had reciprocal obligations that they were responsible for o Humans were responsible for strict following of rituals o Gods owed them prosperity Expansion of Rome Begins with the transition from monarchy to republic o 508/7, the Romans dispose of their last king o The new chief magistrates were two men elected annually. With the name of consuls Rise of Roman power Following the deposition of the monarchy, the Romans are threatened by other Latin speaking cities around then To reassert their dominance over the league, a treaty is drawn confirming them as being the heading city Outside Latium, other countries were encroaching on their territory resulting in a lot of small border quarrels Livy relates a highly dubious tradition that the siege of Veii lasted 11 years Gallic invasion 390 or 387/6 o Galls attack Rome o Rome barely wins because the war because the geese of Juno warn them of a surprise attack o Galls demand 1000 pounds of gold Latin league o Continues to resent Roman leadership o After the Gallic invasion, many of the states defected from the league but Rome brought them back in o Rome gave the citizens of allied cities more rights in their country o Not everyone was satisfied so some still rebelled (340-338) o Rome won and the league was no longer in existence, it was just Rome in control of a large area Samnite war o First war (343-341) Didn't result in much gain on either side o Second (326-304) Infamous because afterwards, the Roman soldiers had to walk under the yoke of the victorious Samnites, which was considered very shameful and embarrassing for the Romans o Third (298-275) Rome won Samnites were forced to surrender and become Roman allies After the Samnites, Rome continues to expand throughout Italy Tarentine War (280-275): Pyrrhus of Epirus By , all of the Italian peninsula is bound to Rome either by conquest or ally Organization of Italy Latin allies o Included several towns in Latium, colonies founded by the Latin league, and new colonies founded by Rome after the dissolution of the Latin league o Enjoyed rights of local autonomy (govern itself, make its own laws), commerce and intermarriage, and could vote in the Roman plebeian assembly also could become Roman citizens by leaving a son of military age in their home town Italian allies o The rest of the conquered and allied peoples of Italy o Each had their own separate testy with rom that outlines their rights and expectations o Obligation to provide military support o Agreement yielding control of foreign policy to the Roman senate o Could do business with Romans and intermarry o Served as auxiliary units in the Roman army o Enjoyed internal autonomy in domestic government and law Reasons for Romes success o The Romans adapt their terms of alliance in a case by case basis depending on the needs of the Romans themselves and the capabilities of their allies o Effective public relations The terms of peace usually showed some leniency toward conquered foes In war they could be merciless o Cohesion Established cohesion among the diverse peoples of Italy who eventually all began to think of themselves as Italians rather than Etruscans, Latins, etc. Provides them with a solid home base when at war with non Italian people Internal development of the Roman state The king was replaced by two consuls o Equal partners, each exercising veto power over the others decision o Annually elected, new rulers each year o Collegiality And annuality are two new characteristics of government it seen before Incorporate in the other offices praetors aediles Quaestors Only could go from be aedile if you had been a quaestor Dictator o During a time of emergency and conflict, the people would elect a dictator who could serve a maximum of 6 months o L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, ca. 460 Farmer in Rome Elected as dictator, went and defeated the enemy, resigned after 16 days Roman legions o Flexibility over those hoplite o Rearmed and reequipped Javelins and short thrusting sword called a gladious The struggle of the orders Dominated Roman domestic policy for over 2 centuries First secession of the Pleps in 490 o Plebeian troops went on strike and went to a sacred mountain o The Roman army is now left powerless because most troops were plebeians o On the mountain, chose two people to be tribunes Tribunes were the champions for their cause and were protected by the gods o Pressed for the codification and publication of Roman law Wanted to prevent magistrates from not properly administrating justice 450 the twelve tables o Written by a committee of 5 patricians and 5 plebeians o No real innovation in their laws, the innovation was that they were publish and everyone knew exactly what the law was o Primitive code representing the values and culture of an agrarian society Debt was a large problem but the tables didn't do anything to alleviate that If a person sang or wrote an offensive song they would be clubbed Intermarriage between patricians and plebeians was banned, but this law was rescinded after 5 years o Livy refers to the 12 tables as the source of all private and public law o Remained the foundation of Roman law for hundreds of years