Notes Biology 1006
Popular in Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Pacicco on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1006 at George Washington University taught by Tara Scully in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 235 views. For similar materials see Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
How to work quotnoble hoursquot 1 Group code 782237811 2 Servegwueduhowtrackservicehours 3 Bedoehrinddwmaildwuedu The Evidence for Evolution 0 Six lines of evidence provide compelling support for biological evolution 1 FossHs a See different groups that have gone extinct over time b See how the environment changed over time c See adaptations 2 Traces of evolutionary history a Look at changes throughout human development b Embryology shows structures that are so similar c Vestigial organs are reduced or degenerate parts whose function is no longer needed d Convergent evolution are characteristics that result from convergent evolution are said to be analogous i Similar adaptations 3 Similarities and divergences in DNA a DNAgt RNA gt protein physical behavioral characteristics b DNA genotype combination of sequences in a person s DNA c Protein gt phenotype 4 Direct observation a Arti cial selection for our needs 5 Continental Drift a Pangea b Can look at fossil evidence from different areas to see when organism developed 6 Macroevolution a Rapid evolutionary change due to environmental conditions b Harsh conditions drive changes in the populations c Changes can be seen in our time Main players of life Bacteria and Archaea Considered prokaryotic cells 0 Small 0 Not compartimentalized 0 Single celled o Asexual reproduction Divergence o Archaea posses genes and metabolic pathways more similar to eukaryotes o Archaea use a much greater variety of energy sources than eukayotes and include quotextremophilequot species Pathogens o No known Archaea pathogens 0 Bacteria can be pathogens How do prokaryotes evolve Sex exchange of genetic information Conjugation connection and exchange between living bacteria 0 Transformation DNA taken up from environment 0 Can produce pathogenic strains antibiotic resistant strains 0 Transduction exchange of DNA through infection by phages viruses 0 Horizontal gene transfer exchange of genetic information bw different group of organisms Micro and Macroevolution The beginning 0 Universal common ancestor Prokaryotes vesus Eukaryotes o 41 429 bya o 31 346 bya 0 DNA analysis 0 What does evolution explain 0 Formation of groups Change in genetic characteristics in a population over time o What is changing 0 Proportion and presence of characteristics within a population 0 Characteristics genetic information 0 Key terms Allele version Genotype combo of version in an individual 0 Genetic basis of Evolution 0 Version alleles o Genotypes characteristics 0 What is changing 0 Ways to measure change Version Allele frequency Combination of versions Genotype frequency 0 What causes genetic change Mutation Recombination Gamete production 0 Fertilization Gene Flow 0 Gene ow exchanges alleles between two different populations random 0 New alleles being introduced 0 Alleles being removed Genetic Drift Chance events leading to differences between organisms in reproduction or survival 0 Random 0 Not based upon any characteristics of individuals 0 Due to Environment Hurricans o Volcanic Eruptions Clearing land for development Overhunting a species Reproduction lnclude gamete production and fertilization Leads to random changes in allele frequencies Smaller population greater the effects Establishing new population Founder effect when a few individuals establish new population 0 Potential outcomes Bottleneck effect 0 May reduce genetic variation 0 Fixation neutral harmful or beneficial Natural Selection 0 When individuals with favorable traits have a higher reproductive rate 0 Three types 1 Directional Selection 2 Stabilizing selection 3 Disruptive Selection Macroevolution Speciation Different selective pressures cause population to become different 0 Reproductive isolation prevents gene ow between populations 0 A secondary consequence of the evolution of populations 0 Pre zygotic barriers Ecological isolation Habitat Temporal Mechanical isolation Gametic lsolation 0 Post zygotic barriers Sperm egg fertilization o Zygote o Mitosis gt adult
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