Psychology Notes Jan 26-Jan 30
Psychology Notes Jan 26-Jan 30 PSY:1001:AAA
Popular in Elementary Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Jilek on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY:1001:AAA at University of Iowa taught by Amy Poremba in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.
Reviews for Psychology Notes Jan 26-Jan 30
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 01/30/15
Elementary Psych Notes Week 1 Foundations of Psychology Professor Boring proposed that psychology rests on two pillars Iustrated by Socrates Aristotle Locke Hume etc 2 Iustrated by Helmholtz Darwin Muller etc Wilhelm Wundt Father of Psychologyquot Founded 1St psychological lab in 1879 Deveoped technique of Introspection F o Unreliable amp biased Introspective Illusion 0 Idea is thought to date back to the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates Theory of structuralism 0 Famous gure Wundt amp EB Tichener o Aimed to identify the most basic elements of psychological experience Analyze complex behavior by breaking the behavior into its component parts William James He opposed structuralism American father of psychology Proposed o Heavily in uenced by Charles Darwin Hoped to understand A The adaptive purposes of thought and behavior B Freewill and determinism C Flow of consciousness D Importance of habit and instinct E Complex theory of self F Theory of emotion Glnclusion of religious beliefs Emphasized the continuous ow of consciousness Psychoanalysis such as Honest conscious stream of thought Freeassociation Subconscious amp dreams Freudian slip Sexuality Major gures Freud and Jung Behaviorism De nition Psychology should only study observable behavior Therefore hidden mental processes consciousness memory amp thought should not be studied Focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking outside the organism Scienti c Rigor Early behaviorists 0 Ivan Pavlov John Watson 0 B F Skinner The Cognitive Revolution Psychology can study hidden mental processes such as memory attention stereotypes beliefs etc o The mind may way like a computer hidden processes Cognitivism Major gures Piaget amp Neisser Scienti c Rigor Early Women in Psychology Mary Whiton Calkins 0 Attended Harvard 0 Worked with William James Margaret Floy Washbum 0 1st to receive a PhD from Edward B Tichener 0 1st woman to receive a PhD in the US 0 Leading psychologist at Vassar College AfricanAmerican psychologist Mamie Phipps Clark Bachelor s and master s from Howard 0 PhD from Columbia Factors that make the study of psych dif cult but rewarding Human behavior is dif cult to predict Actions are multiple determined 1 Psychological in uences are rarely independent of each other 2 People display individual differences in thinking emotion and personality 3 People in uence one another Reciprocal Determinism 4 Behavior is shaped by culture Theories and Hypotheses 0 EX Natural selection is the gradual process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the differential reproductive success organisms interacting with their environment 0 The alpine butter y is a hybrid of the lowland butter y and the meadow butter y 1 Common Sense Not all common sense is wrong 0 Common sense should serve as a generator for hypothesis 0 Base common sense on studied that have already been done 0 Example Thinking that San Diego California is southwest of Reno Nevada because of having a basic idea of where the two states are when really it is southeast Bias Scientists need to design studies that may disprove their theories Science is an approach to evidence one designed to keep us from fooling ourselves Science begins with empiricism experience but then tests those observations using rigorous methods Principles of Scienti c Thinlting 1Ruing out rival hypothesis 2Correlation vs Causation Causation When one thing changing causes the other to change Correlation When two things change along the same course Correlation does not equal causation There are always exceptions to every correlation Superstitions are caused by correlation 3Falsi ability Can the claim be disproved 4RepHcathy 5Extraordinary Scienti c Methods 1Natural Observation 2Case Studies 3Self Report A lot of this is survey work 4Correlationa Designs Two types of studies Correlational Is there a correlation 0 Experimental The manipulation of a variable Correlation Designs Variables 0 Independent the variable the experimenter manipulates o Dependent the variable the experimenter measures Control and experimental groups 0 Random Assignment 0 Manipulation of events Advantage and Disadvantages of Research Designs Naturalistic Observation 0 Advantages High in external validity 0 Disadvantages Low is internal validity Doesn t allow us to infer causation Case Studies 0 Advantages Can provide existence proofs Alow us to observe rare or unusual phenomena Can offer insights for later systematic testing 0 Disadvantages Are typically anecdotal Don t allow us to infer causation Correational Designs 0 Advantages Can help us to predict behavior 0 Disadvantages Don t allow us to infer causation Characteristics of Science 1Structura Empiricism 2Veri cation 3Testabe Hypothesis