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PY 365- Week 3

by: Courtney Green

PY 365- Week 3 PY 365

Courtney Green
GPA 3.79
Psychology of Aging
Michael A. LaRocca

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About this Document

Notes from week 3's lecture over the physical changes in older adults, including notes from guest speaker.
Psychology of Aging
Michael A. LaRocca
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 365 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Michael A. LaRocca in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.


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Date Created: 01/30/15
PY 365 week 3 01272015 Hearing Loss Quality of Life and Assistive Listening Devices 0 One Person s experience 0 Cochlear implants recipients are usually older people with profound hearing loss 0 A theory of hearing loss 0 Hearing loss I isolation l poorer mental health poorer general health impaired physical functioning vicious cycle 0 What are the options 0 Hearing aids Best for moderate hearing loss Amplify sound The user has to adjust to sounds Adjustment involves practicing in several different areas and environments 0 Cochlear implants Best for profound hearing loss don t have many cilia in their cochlea Creates electrical signals substitutes the cochlea for a prosthetic cochlea n Microphone on speech processor which changes the incoming sounds to digital signals The implant then changes the digital signals to electrical currents and the cilia respond to the electrical currents which then send the signals to the auditory nerve which sends the signals to the brain to be interpreted into languagesounds a Hearing is not acoustic brain uses memory to decipher signals The implant has programming for different environments including quiet music crowds etc Audiologists specialize the implant for the individual to be sure that the user gets optimal level hearing Changes in the sensory system 0 Vision and hearing see the most decline in older adults Changes in hearing 0 As adults age hearing loss is the most common and wellknown change that occurs Presbycusis highpitched tones become harder to hear 0 Common in older adults 0 They cannot hear higher pitches because with age adults begin to lose hair cells and sometimes associated nerve bers 0 Men experience a greater loss of hearing than women 0 Usually because men have a greater exposure to noise 0 Hearing loss can be the cause of multiple dif culties and challenges in the daily life of older adults Changes in Vision 0 As aging occurs changes in the structure of the eye also occur 0 The amount of light that passes through the eye decreases with age Older adults also may be more susceptible to glare It takes longer for older adults eyes to adapt to light changes The lens begins to yellow Presbyopia the loss of being able to focus on objects that are near by can correct with glasses bifocals The loss of nearsightedness Cataracts 0 An area in the lens develops that is cloudy and opaque Glaucoma o Glaucoma occurs when uid does not drain correctly and causes pressure 0 Diabetic Retinopathy 0 Practical implications OOOO o The changes in vision that occur in later life can disrupt everyday life and affect everyday tasks that could lead to hazardous experiences ie climbing steps missing one and falling How to prevent vision changes 0 Try to avoid long times spent in front of computers or television 0 Protect eyes from UV rays wear sunglasses 0 Some foods can prevent vision loss Sensory Systems 0 Balance 0 Vestibular system Older age comes increased fear and risk of falling Other balance related phenomenon s include dizziness lightheaded and vertigo that can occur more often in older adults 0 Balance training can help to reduce these changes that occur Tai Chi can help train the body to maintain better balance and prevent falls Changes in smell and taste Olfactory receptors decline in number with age causing older adults to have difficulty smelling Vital functions 0 Cardiovascular disease number one killer of Americans of all ethnicities o Congestive heart failure 0 Angina pectoris Not enough oxygen to the heart 0 Myocardial infarction Heart attack not enough blood to the heart 0 Atherosclerosis Arteries have a build up of fat stiffening of arteries 0 Cerebrovascular accident Stroke 0 Heart has to do a greater amount of work among older adults 0 Respiratory Diseases 0 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Breathing diseases typically associated with older adults Emphysema n Biggest cause smoking Chronic bronchitis a People over 45 are the biggest group affected The Reproductive System 0 Female reproductive system 0 In the 40 s changes begin in the genital organs Transition for women is called perimenopause The reproductive organs and sexual functioning changes 0 Menopause A difference in the severity of the symptoms of menopause are seen in different ethnicities Male Reproductive System 0 There is no event that marks reproductive changes in men Testosterone eves begin to decline The Autonomic Nervous System 0 Body temperature regulation 0 Hypothermia is more susceptible among older adults 0 Sleep and aging 0 Older adults often have issues concerning sleep 0 Almost all aspects of sleep see changes with age 0 Changes in the circadian rhythm occur Exercise and Aging 0 Gym muscle training range of motion lower impact is useful for older adults Longevity Health and functioning 0 Average longevity o The life expectancy on average 0 The age that half of a cohort will have died 0 Longevity has been increasing steadily Active life expectancy 0 At what age you are have lived to and are still healthy and independent Dependent life expectancy 0 Years that you live including those after you lose your independence 0 Life expectancy at birth 0 In a particular year how old all the people born in that year are expected to or will probably live to be o US 7849 age expectancy at birth 0 Live expectancy at a speci c age 0 At a current age Le 80 years how many more years that person can expect to live Le 14 more years left to live Tips to living longer Plantbased diet Beans 0 Invest in family and community 0 Having life purpose 0 Keep network of friends 0 Honor family 0 Have faith Longev y Genetics and environment can affect longevity o Strongest predictor genetics how long your parents lived 0 Environmental factors 0 Health behaviors 0 Any behavior that will maximize psychological and physical function and reduce disease vulnerability or slow the progression of disease Ethnic and Sex Differences in Longevity 0 Ethnic differences 0 Longevity for African Americans is lower than European Americans males by 6 years and females by 4 years 0 African Americans outlive European Americans after the age of85 o Latinos have a higher life expectancy than European Americans and African Americans Health and illness 0 Chronic and acute diseases 0 Acute diseases Conditions that have a quick onset and cause change rapidly Are cured pretty quickly can be cured with medication I Examples in uenza colds and food poisoning 0 Chronic Diseases 0 Heart disease is the leading cause of death Cancer is number two Selfrelated health 0 Ask someone on a scale of 15 how healthy would you rate yourself to be 0 Question used by National Health Interview Survey Selfrelated health was an excellent predictor of future health happiness and a number of other health related factors Quality of Life 0 How a person interprets how satis ed they are with their most important needs goals and desires o Becoming more and more important with older adults Changes in the Immune System 0 With age increased risk of cancer 0 There is a decrease in the effectiveness of NK cells 0 Building up defenses against disease takes longer 0 Immunization needs to be done earlier for older adults Psychoneuroimmunology 0 People who can manage stress well tend to be happier get sick less often and recover from illnesses quickly Older Adults amp HIVAIDS 0 Half of US citizens with HIV are over 50 0 Physicians often do not test older patients 0 Why They may feel that they are not sexually active HIVAIDS progresses more rapidly among older adults than younger adu s Older African Americans


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