HD 202- Week 3 notes
HD 202- Week 3 notes HD 202
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HD 202 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Maria Hernandez-Reif in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 270 views.
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I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Courtney!!!
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Date Created: 01/30/15
HD 202 week 3 01272015 What makes a reinforcer a reinforcer It has to be unique to a child Limitations of behaviorism and social learning theory 0 Too narrow a view of important environmental in uences Bandura s work is unique because children play an active role in their own learning Piaget39s Cognitive Developmental Theory 0 Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world 0 Children develop schemas or innermental representations of the world around them 0 Schema mental representation that a child creates Example Teacher points out birds to child mother points out birds to child starts to develop a mental representation of what a bird is wings ying Children learn to problem solve through adaptation made up of two repeatedly appearing processes 0 Assimilation and accommodation Assimilation directly processing information that a child knows incorporating more into your already existing schema associating ducks swans eagles hawks all into the category of birds Accommodation changing what one knows to the new information learning that even though butter ies do have wings and y they are not in the bird category 0 Eguilibrium leads to more advanced ways of thinking Paiget s Stages of cognitive development 0 Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years Infants think using their eyes ears hands and mouths They invent ways to solve sensorimotor problems a such as pushing a button to hear the sound of a music box nding hidden toys and placing objects in and out of a container 0 Preoperational 27 years preschool children represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries with symbols children start to develop language and makebelieve play takes place However thinking lacks the logic that the two remaining stages possess 0 Concrete operational 711 years children s reasoning becomes logical and better organized schoolage children understand the concept of conservation the idea that a certain amount of liquid or soft solid remains the same even after its appearance changes They also organize objects into orders of classes and subclasses Thinking is not yet abstract and not yet at the adult level 0 Formal operational 11 years on the capacity for abstract systemic thinking adolescents are now able to hypothesize deduce testable inferences and isolate and combine variables to solve a problem Adolescents can also evaluate the reasoning of verbal statements without referring to realworld circumstances informationprocessing theory 0 Information ows through the human mind as if it were like a computermanipulating system 0 In order to solve problems children use different strategies 0 owchart 0 map out the steps children take to solve problems 0 trial and error until they gure out the solution believes that children are actively making sense of the world Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the cognitive processing and behavior patterns of the developing child Combination of psychology biology neuroscience and medicine study brain function use MRl s The most advanced theory Ethology Concerned with the survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history Study animals and transform ndingsresearch to humans Ethologists focus on how behaviors encourage the survival of the individual and the species 0 Example does children s aggression have survival signi cance Ethologists look at these behaviors and how they may in uence the child s or animals survival risks and rewards of certain behaviors See aggression as an optimal behavior believe that it is learned because it is a way of learning how to get what they need Roots traced to Darwin 0 Imprinting Baby animals or humans come to identify another animal or person as a parent or personobject of habitual trust babieshumans seek an attachment to their parentmother Ducklings imprint the 1st object they see soon after birth a Konrad amp Lorenz 0 Critical period about 36 hours after hatching imprinting must occur if they do not imprint in the rst 36 hours than they will never imprint o Sensitive period Individual is especially responsive to environment Boundaries less clearly de ned than a critical period An optimal time for certain capacities to emerge Babies need around a year and a half to form an attachment to an individual who is consistent in their environment and who is responsive to the child Has to do with learning language trust Vygotsky39s Sociocultural Theory 0 Culture passes from one generation to the next 0 Beliefs customs skills 0 In order for cognitive development to progress social interaction is vital 0 Communication with members of society are more knowledgeable is important in development 0 Learning from others Scaffolding 0 Providing support and resources for a child to learn new concepts Ecological Systems Theory 0 Microsystem l mesosystem l exosystem l macrosystem o the individual innermost system 0 Microsystem the child s familiar and routine things that in uence development immediate family play area childcare center or school Mesosystem immediate family neighborhood play area childcare center how they all interact together 0 Exosystem how extended gures affect the child s development extended family friends and neighbors workplace community health services 0 Macrosystem how things such as values laws and customs affectin uence the child s development Dynamic Systems Perspective 0 A child s integrated system consisting of mind body physical and socials worlds guides the mastery of new skills 0 The system is dynamic constantly in motion and changing Changes in one domain cause changes in all other domains Work together and continue to affect development throughout the l espan Scienti c Research Hypothesis proposed explanation for a certain phenomenon drawn from a theory 0 Research methods activities of participants 0 Research designs overall plans for research studies Systematic Observation 0 Naturalistic Observation 0 In the eld or natural environment where behavior happens Structured Observations o All participants have equal chance to exhibit the behavior 0 A speci c situation is set up in a laboratory to encourage or evoke a behavior that the experimenter is interested in Interviews 0 Clinical interview 0 Flexible conversational style 0 Probes for participant s point of view 0 Can provide a lot of information change to expand on ques ons o Accurate Children are often in uenced by how things are asked or what speci cally is asked It could change their answer 0 Structured interview 0 Each participant is asked same questions in the same way 0 May use questionnaires get answers from groups 0 Not as indepth there is an inability for the interviewee to elaborate on their answer 0 Because the same questions are asked in the same way it reduces the likelihood that a child could be persuaded to answer the question to satisfy the interviewer Case Study Involves interviews observations and test scores and combines all the information involved 0 Best used to study unique types 0 May be subjective Research Design Correlational studies 0 Two or more variables are compared between participants to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables 0 Researchers gather information and make no effort to alter their experiences 0 Limited because cause and effect cannot be inferred For example is watching TV associated with more aggressive displays by children 0 Statistics for this type of study is a correlation coef cient with ranges between 10 and 10 0 Correlation coef cients Magnitude a Size of the number between 0 and 1 a Closer to 1 positive or negative is a stronger relationship o 0 no relationship o 1 or 1 strong relationship Direction n Indicated by or sign a Positive means as one variable increases so does the other a Negative means as one variable increases the other decreases n 1 strong negative relationship a 1 strong positive relationship Experimental study 0 Independent and dependent variables 0 Independent This is the variable that the experimenter will manipulate Anticipated to incite changes in another variable 0 Dependent This is the variable that the experimenter will measure Anticipated to change as a result of the independent variable