Week 12 - psych 364
Week 12 - psych 364 Psyc 3640
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology 3640 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
11/16/2015 ▯ Review: ▯ Develop separate lists for individuals in different demographic groups who are then ranked within their respective group o In general, subgroup norming is not allowed as a staffing strategy - Subgroup norming is illegal – Biases Homogeneity is good short-term, but long-term, diversity is needed to thrive - Having separate groups for majority and minority and choosing from these is illegal SELECTION RATIO The Minority group SR needs to be 40% of the Majority SR ▯ Selection vs. Placement Sometimes, the challenge is to place an individual rather than simply select an individual Placement o Process of matching multiple applicants & multiple job openings o Strategies Vocational guidance Pure selection Cut & fit ▯ Deselection 2 typical situations o Termination for cause Individual is fired for a particular reason Generally not unexpected – foreseen due to poor practices and performance o Layoff Job loss due to employer downsizing or reductions in force – organization needs to cut costs Want to get rid of the more expensive employees; usually the more experienced/management Cheaper to replace older employees with younger, cheaper employees who can also match performance - Ageism Often occurs with little or no warning ▯ ▯ Legal issues in staffing decisions Charges of employment discrimination o Involve violations of Title VII of 1964 CRA, ADA, or ADEA ADA – protects physical and mental abilities Title VII – minority groups are protected 1964 – Protects Age o I-O psychologists often serve as expert witnesses in these lawsuits o Consequences can be substantial o Most often brought by individual claiming unfair termination Lay-offs/biases ▯ ▯ ▯ Discrimination or adverse treatment Could be overt or covert; intentional Overt: o Adverse treatment/ Disperet TREATMENT – very intentional mistreatment/discrimination of a person Disperet treatment means differently from the others; directed at one person in an organization o Plaintiff attempts to show that employer treated plaintiff differently than majority applicants or employees Covert: o Disperet/Adverse IMPACT; Unintentional, but occurs due to hiring practices/tests developed – the innate biases o Acknowledges employer may not have intended to discriminate against plaintiff but employer practice had AI on group to which plaintiff belongs Burden of proof on plaintiff to show: a) he/she belongs to a protected group, & b) members of protected group were statistically disadvantaged compared to majority employees 80% or 45% rule o Guideline for assessing whether there is evidence of Adverse Impact (AI) Shows ratio of selection/majority group and the minority ratio to see if hiring is fair; Job offers / number of people who apply o Plaintiffs must show that protected group received only 80% of desirable outcomes received by majority group in order to meet burden of demonstrating AI Basically select 5 white applicants out of 10 50% selection ratio for WHITE Applicants The selection ratio for Black applicants must be 80% of the majority Therefore, the selection ratio for blacks must be= 5*.8 = 4 So out of 20 total applicants, 8/20 must be black ^^^Test Q If the KSAOs are missing from a minority applicant/under-qualified… must demonstrate that all predictors point towards the applicant not doing well o Results in AI ratio o Can be substantially affected by sample sizes o Burden of proof shifts to employer once AI is demonstrated Social Networking Sites and the workplace o Employees (or applicants) posting information on a social networking site (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) that is accessed by an employer have been increasingly getting in trouble. o Job candidates who have been found to post on SNS that they like to “shoot people” or “blow things up” have been removed from hiring consideration. o Employment lawyers are still debating the legality of employment decisions based on information on social networking sites. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Ch 7 ▯ ▯ Training & learning Training o Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment o Basic foundation for training programs is learning Develop skills, knowledge, and attitudes which result in higher performance Focus on building KSAOs – but you cannot develop ability Ability = innate quality; is a capacity If you don’t selectively choose the right employees, no amount of training will ever change them ability-wise o Training can affect skills, attitudes, and knowledge Learning o Relatively permanent change in behavior & human capabilities produced by experience & practice Develop o 3 broad categories of learning outcomes Cognitive outcomes Skill-based outcomes Affective outcomes ▯ Performance ▯ Actions or behaviors relevant to organization’s goals; can be measured in terms of each individual proficiency Can often be directly observed We assume learning takes place from observing performance ▯ Training increases probability of learning, and learning increases probability of better job performance. o Training does NOT Guarantee learning o ▯ ▯ Training Needs Analysis 3-step process 1. Organizational analysis – asses What are the needs? 2. Task analysis - Task, employee, organizational, which departments need help? Who is under performing? 3. Person analysis – Which Person needs training ▯ Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), & who will be trained (person) ▯ ▯ 1. Organizational Analysis Examines org. goals, available resources, & org. environment to determine where training should be directed o Takes into account climate of organization & its subunits o How does upper-level feel about training? o Broad ▯ ▯ 2. Task Analysis Examines what employees must do to perform job properly o Can consist of o Developing task statements o Determining homogeneous task clusters o Identifying KSAOs required for job May also include assessment of competencies o What are the attributes needed to complete job; job analysis What are the minimal KSAOs needed for minimal… ▯ ▯ 3. Person Analysis Identifies which individuals within organization should receive training & what kind of instruction they need Assessments of trainee personality, ability, & experience increasingly being used as part of needs analysis o What type of instruction is needed- learning styles, types of instructions Based on experiences, resources, personality characteristics – assessing IF this training is worth while/resources ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Learning Process in Training Original motivational goal is to get THE job… however, motivation is a characteristic within a person based on CONTEXT o Not everyone is as motivated Trainee characteristics of interest o Goal orientations: Performance Goal-orientation – a goal of X OUTCOME based on behavior Concerned with doing well Not necessarily the process Mastery Goal-orientation – wants to master the material in order to become more effective Concerned with increasing competence Care about the process of acquiring knowledge/growth o Experience level o Trainee motivation o Trainee readiness ▯ Learning & Motivational Theories Applied to Training Reinforcement theory o Learning results from association between behaviors & rewards Positive reinforcement (Increase) Desired behavior followed by reward +(stimulus) +(added) = ^ Increase Negative Reinforcement (Increase) Taking away an UNDESIRED thing/experience -(stimulus) -(taken away) = ^ Increase Positive Punishment (Decrease) Adding an Undesirable stimulus -(stimulus) +(added) = decrease Negative Punishment (Decrease) Take away a desired stimulus +(stimulus) -(taken away) = decrease Negative = Taken away Positive = Added Reinforcement = Increase behavior Punishment = decrease behavior o Behavior modification Simple recognition & feedback can be effective in increasing performance Using these techniques to change behavior Social learning theory proposes that there are many ways to learn including: o Behavioral modeling 1. Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors Learning does NOT only occurs when you experience it yourself…not just through direct reinforcement Watching is an expert is an influential way to learn 2. Rehearse before using role-playing Practicing and gaining experience for self, but simulation of skill 3. Receive feedback on rehearsal Learn what you did wrong 4. Try behavior on the job Test out behavior fully
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