11/12/15 Unit 4 Chapter 21 and Start of 22 Notes
11/12/15 Unit 4 Chapter 21 and Start of 22 Notes BMS 208-03
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
Blood and Heart 111515 1138 PM Unit 4 Exam Dec 1 FINAL ON MONDAY DEC 14 12150 Blood is Connective Tissue has extracellular matrix and cells 0 Plasma 55 of whole blood Extracellular matrix 0 Plasma Proteins Albumins smallest of the proteins responsible for creating osmotic pressure to blood Globulins gamma globulins antibodies used for immunity Fibrinogen activated by injury to the blood vessel converted to fibrin when blood clots Plasma is richer than Serum because serum is plasma without clotting factors In order for blood to circulate the solids help draw the fluid back into circulation work of the Albumins Buffy coat leukocytes and platelets 1 Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells 44 of whole blood 0 O 0000 Not true cells they are anucleated don t have a nucleus They used to have nucleus when they are developing and when ejected from red bone marrow they give up the nucleus to be able to bend and fold and flex biconcave disc shape We rely on healthy bone marrow to produce these Life span of a red blood cell is 4 months 5000000 cells per microliter Red blood cell filled with protein called Hemoglobin Part that contains inorganic iron HEME Organic part is GLOBIN Deoxyhemoglobin bonds with oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin so the dark red color turns to a bright red Hematopoesis production of all types of blood cells in bone marrow Hemocytoblast is a stem cell that can become any blood cells while the progenitor cells are the first cell in specific line of a cell Erythropoeisis formation of erythrocytes The Normoblast is the last form of the erythrocyte that contains the nucleus this form ejects nucleus to become the Reticulocyte the last form within the bone marrow and once the cell is ejected from bone marrow Erythrocyte the circulating form of the red blood cell Stages of Red Blood Cell Production pg 147 takes about a week for the proerythroblast to turn into mature red blood cell When oxygen level is lower than normal the production of erythrocytes is stimulated by Erythropoietin EPO a hormone released by kidney p 141 vitamin B12 B6 folic acid erythropoietin This hormone travels to red bone marrow found in flat bones When you train up in the mountains you form high levels of erythropoietin so the blood can deliver more blood throughout the body Armstrong did this and saved his hormone of erythropoietin for the race to have extra erythrocytes Anemia decrease in oxygen carrying capacity deficiency of red blood cells and or hemoglobin Leukocytes white blood cells main function is immunity active only when some pathogens are present they are your fighting force 5000 per microliter healthy body don t need many of them if we had too many the blood becomes too dense and can form blood 0 Granulocytes Neutrophil n Bacterial infections is when these are most active When you have abcess or zit n PMNs Eosinophils especially active during parasitic infections tapeworms Basophils affinity to basic pigments these contain histamine in their granules substances that are present during allergic reactions 0 Agranulocytes Monocytes attack amp ingest bacteria viruses pathogen ingest our own abnormal cells anything that doesn t belong In Enter infected tissues and become macrophages Lymphocytes these are the ones that remember diseases and illnesses and build your immunity vaccines protection a T Lymphocytes Stimulated by thymic hormones Responsible for cellmediated immunity 0 Hand and hand combat n B Lymphocytes Responsible for humoral antibody mediated immunity 0 Mature in the bone marrow Antibody production our ammunition B Lymphocytes protect by making ammunition a Relative abundance of Leukocytes in blood 0 Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas most to least Leukocytosis increase in of circulating WBC infection Leukopenia When bone marrow is sluggish less than normal number of WBC s Leukemia increase in total and of immature WBC cancer of the white blood cells Platelets Thrombocytes Hemocytoblast gt progenitor gt somes cells gtMegakaryocyte gt This blows up and these fragments are Thrombocytes they don t contain nucleus and they cant divide 0 Main function is preventing blood loss Hemostasis prevention of blood loss 0 Derived from Megakaryocytes The Heart Normal counts in blood is hundreds of thousands 120000 350000 Thrombopoietin hormone that stimulates the production of thrombocytes Thrombocytopenia Less than normal number of platelets causes a bleeding disorder Heart is located in the pericardial cavity between the 2nd rib and 5th intercostal space slighty shifted to the left and forward inverted pyramid most superior part is the Base the more inferior is the Apex Surrounded by connective Tissue O O Fibrous Pericardium very thick fibrous layer outer layer Visceral Pericardium Epicardium The lining of the pericardial cavity the internal layer Pericardial Fluid found in the Pericardial Cavity between parietal amp visceral layers of serous pericardium fig 223 Pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium 0 Cardiac Tissue muscle generates its own rhythm O Contractile Cells Comprises 99 Intercalated discs allows for quick transition of ion throughout the entire muscles 0 The Heart Wall 0 O O Epicardium visceral layer of pericardium Myocardium Cardiac Muscle Tissue Endocardium thin 1 cell layer of squamous epithelium lining of the chambers of the heart 0 The External Heart Anatomy O 0000 Superior Vena Cava bringing blood from head and upper extremities Inferior Vena Cava bringing blood from lower body Descending Aorta largest Aortic Arch Pulmonary Trunk gives rise to two vessels takes blood to thelungs Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries 0 Right and Left Atrium two superior chambers of the heart Underneath these Right and Left Ventricle o Ascending Aorta 111515 1138 PM 111515 1138 PM
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