Heart Anatomy Lab Notes
Heart Anatomy Lab Notes 272-01LL
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliana Bernard on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 272-01LL at University of Massachusetts taught by Dr. Gordon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II Lab in Kinesiology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Lab Week Jan 2630 Lab 1 Notes Heart Anatomy The heart is enclosed by pericardium a membranous sac that consists of two parts Fibrous pericardium tough outer layer made up of connective tissue Serous pericardium inner delicate serous membrane that forms a doublelayered sac around the heart The heart and surrounding pericardial cavity are located within the mediastinum centrally located area within the thoracic cavity The heart wall consists of three tissue layers 1 Endocardium inner thin serous membrane of connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium it lines the internal walls of the heart chambers 2 Myocardium middle the thickest layer composed primarily of cardiac muscle bers separated by connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves 3 Epicardium outermost serous membrane of connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium like the endocardium also called the visceral pericardium The heart is divided into left and right sides each contains 2 chambers Atrium superior receives blood Ventricle inferior discharges blood The great blood vessels connected to the base of the heart Superior vena cava empties into the right atrium Ascending aorta receives blood from the left ventricle and gives rise to the arch of the aorta Pumonary trunk located anterior to the ascending aorta and receives blood from the right ventricle Two major sulci grooves on the anterior surface Coronary sulcus divides the atria superiorly from the ventricles inferiorly Anterior interventricular sulcus travels toward the apex and forms a border between the left and right ventricles The base of the heart is at the heart39s posterior and superior aspects The great blood vessels are attached to the heart at the base Aortic arch passes posteriorly over the pulmonary trunk Pumonary arteries left and right branches of the pulmonary trunk Pumonary veins four in total two on each side enter the left atrium Venae cavae superior and inferior enter the right atrium Two major sulci grooves on the posterior surface Coronary sulcus continues along the posterior surface between the atria and ventricles forms complete circle around the heart Posterior interventricular sulcus descends toward the apex from the coronary sulcus and forms a border between the left and right ventricles The two atria are thinwalled chambers that receive blood from the great veins In the right atrium identify fossa ovalis oval depression along the interatrial septum pectinate muscles rough surface that forms the anterior wall and auricle right atrioventricular orifice the opening that leads to the right ventricle In the left atrium identify eft atrioventricular orifice the opening that leads to the left ventricle The two ventricles are thickwalled chambers that pump bloood into the great arteries In the right ventricle identify trabeculae carnae irregular network of muscular elevations covering the walls conus arteriosus coneshaped chamber which leads to the pulmonary trunk walls are smooth In the left ventricle identify aortic vestibule the smooth walled superior region that leads to the aorta The interventricular septum is the wall that separates the two ventricles The two semilunar valves regulate the flow of blood between the ventricles and the great arteries and are controlled by changes in pressure pulmonary semilunar valve and the aortic semilunar valve The two atrioventricular valves are positioned between the atria and ventricles at the ventricular orifices and are controlled by changes in pressure tricuspid valve right AV valve and the bicuspid or mitral valve left Within the valves Cusps extend into the ventricular chambers Chordae tendineae fibrous cords that connect the inferior free margins of the cusps to papillary muscles Papilary muscles located on the ventricular wall and connect to the chordae tendineae The right and left coronary arteries branch directly off the ascending aorta delivering blood to all regions of the heart The right coronary artery travels to the right along the coronary sulcus just before it curves around to the posterior surface it gives off a branch called the right marginal artery which descends along the lateral margin of the right ventricle The left coronary artery branches off the ascending aorta just superior to the aortic semilunar valve and passes along the coronary sulcus posterior to the pulmonary trunk this artery gives off two main branches the circumflex artery that travels along the coronary sulcus curves around the left side and continues onto the posterior surface and the anterior interventricular artery that descends toward the apex along the anterior interventricular sulcus On the posterior surface of the heart the right coronary and circum ex arteries give off two large branches The left marginal artery branches off the circumflex artery and descends along the posterolateral wall of the left ventricle The posterior interventricular artery branches off the right coronary artery and descends toward the apex along the posterior interventricular sulcus Cardiac veins drain blood from the heart wall most of these veins drain into the coronary sinus a large dilated sac that empties into the right atrium The great cardiac vein is found on the anterior surface of the heart and ascends along the anterior interventricular sulcus running alongside the anterior interventricular artery at the coronary sulcus it travels with the circumflex artery to the posterior surface where it drains into the coronary sinus The small cardiac vein travels alongside the right marginal artery toward the coronary sulcus traveling with the right coronary artery along the coronary sulcus to the posterior surface and drains into the coronary sinus The anterior cardiac veins are small veins that travel a short distance along the anterior surface of the right ventricle they drain directly into the right atrium The posterior cardiac vein travels with the left marginal artery along the left ventricular wall The middle cardiac vein ascends along the posterior interventricular sulcus traveling with the posterior interventricular artery Tracing Blood Flow The heart is a twosided muscular pump that regulates two separate loops of the circulation of blood Pulmonary circulation deoxygenated blood is transported to the lungs where it is oxygenated Systematic circulation oxygenated blood is transported throughout the body to deliver oxygen to all cells and tissues The right side of the heart controls the pulmonary circulation The left side of the heart controls the systemic circulation The flow of blood through pulmonary and systemic circuits occurs simultaneously Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium via the venae cavae coronary sinus and anterior cardiac veins Blood passes through the tricuspid valve and enters the right ventricle The right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary trunk The pulmonary arteries and their branches send blood to the lungs to be oxygenated The pulmonary veins transport the oxygenated blood to the left atrium Oxygenated blood passes through the bicuspid mitral valve and enters the left ventricle The left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta The aorta and its branches send oxygenated blood to 8a the head neck and upper limbs via branches of the aortic arch 8b the thorax abdomen pelvis and lower limbs via branches of the descending aorta 9 Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the superior and inferior venae cavae CDVCDU39lPOONA
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