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Philosophy notes: 1/19 - 1/30

by: Emma Andrianopoulos

Philosophy notes: 1/19 - 1/30 PHIL 164

Emma Andrianopoulos
GPA 3.5
Medical Ethics
Peter Graham

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About this Document

I have attended every lecture and diligently taken notes. If you missed class, or need to refresh on the material my notes are for you. I am an above average student and relay the information in a ...
Medical Ethics
Peter Graham
Class Notes
philosophy, philosophy 164, notes, medical ethics, class notes, bioethics, philosophy lecture notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Andrianopoulos on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 164 at University of Massachusetts taught by Peter Graham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 365 views. For similar materials see Medical Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 01/30/15
11915 Philosophy 164 Midterm exam February 25 HW chapter 1 pp 318 of bioethics Rachel s quotthe challenge of cultural relativismquot Ethics and Medical Ethics Ethics the study of morality using the tools and methods of thosophu Three branches of ethics 0 Normative ethics 0 Metaethics 0 Applied Ethics Normative ethics vs descriptive ethics 0 Descriptive ethics one investigates the moral beliefs and practices that constitute people s moral experience 0 Normative ethics we re looking for justi cations of moral standards norms and principles Metaethics vs Applied Ethics 0 Metaethics he study of the meaning of moral terms and the nature of moral beliefs 0 Applied ethics the use of moral norms principles and theories to resolve practical moral issues 0 Bioethics a prance of applied ethics focused on health care medical science and medical technology 0 Medical ethics a branch of bioethics focusing on the moral issues associated with medical practice Moral norms and principles 0 There are many kinds of norms and principles moral norms norms of etiquette prudential norms aesthetic norms legal norms ect o Moral norms are special among these different classes of norms in virtue of their particular features Normative dominance moral norms trump ex Take precedence over other norms Universality moral norms apply to all people and in all reevanty similar situations Impartiality moral norms treat everyone as moral equals unless there is a morally relevant difference between them Reasonableness Moral norms are backed by reasons and are not arbitrary Arguments what is an argument 0 A series of propositions meant to establish another proposition 11915 the series of propositions are referred to as the argument s premises 0 Validity A valid argument is one for which it is impossible for all of its premises to be true and its conclusion false a valid argument s premises entail its conclusion The truth of the premises of a valid argument guarentee the truth of its conclusion If an argument is valid then to know whether we should accept the conclusion we only need to determine one thing whether its premises are true If the conclusion is true clearly we should believe it o Soundness an argument is sound if and only if it is valid and its premises are actually true Every sound argument has a true conclusion 0 Modus ponens Some vaid arguments are valid merely in virtue of their form Any argument with the following form is valid order does not matter 0 P 5gt4 o If P then Q if 5gt4 then 5gt2 Therefore Q therefore 5gt2 Any argument in modus ponens form is valid Any argument in modus ponens form with true premises issound If it is in MP it is valid 0 Modus toens the order of the premises does not matter any argument in modus toens form with true premises is sound Form o If P then Q o It is not the case that Q 0 Therefore it is not the case that P Quiz 1 Can a sound argument have a false conclusion NO a Every sound argument must have a true conclusion 2 Can a valid argument have a false conclusion YES Lecture 2 Common fallacies WRONG FORMATS o If P then Q o It is not the case that P 11915 0 Therefore it is not the case that Q This argument is not valid it looks a lot like MT but its NOT 0 If the orange is in the bowl then the orange is in the ktchen The orange is in the kitchen 0 Therefore the orange is in the bowl This argument is not valid It looks a lot like MP but it is NOT Learning to PEE Present Explain and Evaluate 0 To PEE an argument Present it put the argument in premiseconclusion form 0 Differentiate between MT and MP Explain it provide the purported justi cations reasons offered for the argument s premises 0 What were the premises of the argument Evaluate it say both whether the argument is valid and whether it has true premises if it is valid but not sound explain which premise is false 0 Whether or not it is valid are the premises true if not which one is false Whenever an argument has the form quotit is not the case thatquot it is Modus Tollens O Moral Principles and Moral Theories Moral Principles is a moral claim to the effect that something should or ought to be the case or that people should or ought to do certain things 0 Ex You should keep your promises 0 Ex No child should go to bed hungry 0 Ex You ought not to cause unnecessary suffering Moral Theorv a theory which purports to explain all true moral principles Moral Principles in Bioethics There are many moral principles but a few seem to be at the core of many debates in bioethics The principles of o Autonomy o Bene cence and nonmaleficence 0 Utility 0 Justice 11915 Autonomy Self Rule 0 Moral principle People should be allowed to exercise their capacity for selfdetermination quotI should be in control of my own life who are you to tell me what to doquot 0 An agent is autonomous when she is free to determine the course and direction of her own life Bene cence and NonMale cence o Moral principle We should do good to others and avoid doing them harm o Bene cence someone who helps someone else 0 NonMaleficence someone who refrains from harming others Utility 0 Moral principle We should produce the most favorable balance of good over bad or bene t over harm for all concerned 0 Utility is a term coined by philosophers used as a measure of the net total of good over bad in a situation 0 We must bring the best situation possible or the best balance of bene t over harm Justice 0 Moral Principle moral equals should be treated equally and everyone should get what she deserves 0 Justice is a core moral value and is a matter of both of equal treatment and of everyone getting what they deserve Sometimes moral principles con ict 0 Ex When keeping a promise will hurt someone 0 When harming someone is the only way to prevent someone else from suffering a harm Lecture 3 Con icts among moral principles 0 One of the necessary features of an adequate moral theory is to explain which principle quotwins outquot in situations in which they con ict Cultural Relativism 0 Cultural relativism is a moral theory according to which moral rightness and wrongness is determined by the moral norms accepted in the society where it is performed 0 X is a society def x is a collection of people living in proximity to each other sharing a language religion cuisine culture ect o C is the moral code of society x at time t def C is the system of moral rules 11915 0 Cultural relativism CR an action A is right or wrong if and only if A is deemed right or wrong by the moral code of society in which it is performed 0 We must be careful to distinguish CR from DR Descriptive relativism DR Different societies have different moral codes Arguing from DR to CR 0 Though DR and CR are distinct some people think the truth of DR shows that CR is true Different societies have different moral codes If different societies have different moral codes then CR is true Therefore CR is true Explaining the Argument 0 justi cation for premise 1 Premise 1 is just DR DR is a fact rmly established by historians and sociologists Ex Caatians vs Greeks o justi cation for premise 2 If there is a disagreement between different cultures and societies about the truth of moral matters that must be because whatever is true in moral matters just depends on what people believe about moral matters in their society Evaluating the argument 0 The rst premise is just DR which is clearly true 0 But what about the second premise If different societies have different moral codes then CR is true just because society accepts a claim as true doesn t make that claim true 0 Some people in other societies believe that the earth is at but it is not the case that the earth is at Bad Argument vs False Thesis 0 The argument from DR to CR is a bad argument because we don t have any good reason to accept premise 2 0 However just because the argument from DR to CR is a bad argument it doesn t follow that CR is false It might for all that be true CR and quotRelativismquot 11915 0 In contemporary discourse and in particular political discourse quotmoral relativismquot often seems to be used to denote the following thesis Every act is morally permissible or quotanything goesquot This thesis is quite different from CR Arguments against CR 0 The Nazi Argument MT It is not the case that the Nazis treatment of the Jews in Eastern Europe was morally permissible lf CR is true then the Nazis treatment of the Jews is Eastern Europe was morally permissible Therefore it is not the case that CR is true 0 The Huck Finn Argument MT lf CR is true then Huck Finn can determine whether it would be morally permissible not to return Jim by consulting the antebellum before the war slavery laws of the South It is not the case that Huck Finn can determine whether it would be morally permissible not to return Jim by consulting the antebellum slavery laws of the South Therefore it is not the case that CR is true


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