Week Three Notes-Geology G-104
Week Three Notes-Geology G-104 GEOL-104 20584
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Hughes on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL-104 20584 at Indiana University taught by Laura Wasylenki in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Evolution of the Earth in Geology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
12715 G104 IGNEOUS ROCKS Extrusive volcanic erupted at surface Intrusive solidified beneath surface MAFIC Basalt shield volcano blackdark colored Gabbro dark colored interlocking mOderat When cooled high magnesium and iron crystals moderate Si high Fe 6 Si high red at first bubbledholey magma is runny Fe and When first erupted moderate silica not Mg very explosive FELSIC Andesite Dacite Rhyolite Granite light colored interlocking high Si stratovolcanoes more typical cone shape crystals high Si low Fe 10W F6 violent eruption glass ash light colored little iron viscous stiff magma high Si takes a lot of pressure 0 Can rarely have a mixture of the above 0 Magmamelted stuff rocks 0 Most magma doesn t make it to the surface gets stuck underground 0 Can form minerals over time 0 Evidence that intrusive igneous rocks result from solidification of magma that failed to reach the surface 0 Intrusions are sometimes connected to volcanic rocks underground 0 Baked zones indicate that hot magma cooked the rock it intruded 0 We can melt rocks in the lab and get stuff that resemble natural intrusives 0 Imagine you just found a sample that is mostly made of light gray ash With some chunks of bubbly White glass mixed in Which is it most likely to be 0 Basalt Which is a moderately Sirich volcanic rock 0 Granite Which is a Sirich igneous intrusive rock 0 tholite a verv Sirich volcanic rock 0 All we know from the information given is that the sample is some kind of mineral 0 Granite 0 Process acting on it erosionweathering 39 Gravity water ice wind plant roots humans 0 Transportation and deposition I Deposited somewhere else 0 Lithification to make I Creates sedimentary rocks 0 Rocks created from broken down rocks 12915 I Weathering the disintegration and decomposition of rocks via 0 PhysicalMechanical weathering I Rocks are broken into smaller fragments but without significant change in chemical or mineralogical composition I Product mineral and rock fragments clasts or sediments 0 Greater surface area for other processes 0 Chemical weathering I Chemical reactions that can changealter the composition I Products 1 dissolved constituents ions in solution 2 secondary minerals new forms of existing minerals that crystallize in situ PhysicalMechanical Chemical FreezeT haw disruption of rock fabrics due Dissolution dissolved C02 in rainwater to stresses generated by freezing and thawing increases the acidity of the water which can of water in rock fractures Ex Pot holes break down bonds between ions in minerals Ex Caves Insolation expansion of rock surfaces heated by the Sun insolation followed by contraction as the temperature falls can weaken bonds along grain boundaries Root Activity growth of roots along cracks Oxidation dissolved 02 in water reacts with can eventually pry apart a rock certain mineral groups causing them to oxidize which weakens the mineral structure Ex Rust 0 Erosion and Transport 0 Mineral and rock fragments loosened by weathering are eroded and transported primarily by wind water and ice 0 Water O The amount of sediment and the size of clasts transported by moving water depends on the energy of the ow current I Lowenergy layered smaller stuff thin Highenergy chunks larger stuff thick oriented in one direction with current Ice Glaciers O Carved attened carry sediments to other areas Wind 0 Smaller grains EX Sand Deposition and Lithification 0 Where transportedaccumulatedbasis low point oceans O Deposition deposited sediment accumulates in layers 0 Compaction the weight of overlying layers reduces sediment pore space 0 Cementation cement precipitated out of solution binds clasts together 39 Sedimentary Sedimentary rocks formed from sedimentclasts derived from igneous metamorphic and other older sedimentary rocks 0 Primarily classified according to the size of the clasts Rock Cycle Wigtamarind 739 39 39 Transportation Burial sandmanmum in
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