BIO20C | Week 7/8 - Ecology
BIO20C | Week 7/8 - Ecology BIOE 20C - 01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by echen30 on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOE 20C - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Marinovic,B.B. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
Week 7 Ecology BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic What is Ecology o Oikos house 0 Logos to study 0 Study how organisms interact with environment 0 Central goals of ecology I Understand distribution and abundance of organisms I Recognizeexplain patterns in nature More on the Environment 0 Can be divided into two parts 0 Biotic living 0 Abiotic nonliving o Biotic interactions between organisms o Abiotic interactions between organism and nonliving environment Scale of Ecological Study 0 Organismal ecology 0 Population ecology 0 Community ecology o Ecosystem ecology Organismal Ecology 0 Focus interaction between individual and environment 0 Considers morphology physiology behavior Population Ecology 0 Focus on the population 0 Goals understand mechanisms regulating population growth 0 Also look at interactions between members of a population Community Ecology 0 Community all the organisms that interact within an area 0 Area of focus I Interspecific interactions I Community structure I Community response to disturbance Ecosystem Ecology 0 Expand to include both the bioticabiotic interactions 0 Ecosystem an organism in an area and abiotic environment 0 Area of focus I Nutrient cycle I Energy ow Climate 0 Climate in uences ecosystem structure Historically describes terrestrial systems Aquatic systems also have distinct climate Climate prevailing long term weather conditions Weather short term atmosphericaquatic conditions I Temperature precipitation wind 0 Climate is what you expect weather is what you get 0 O O O Week 7 Ecology BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic More on WeatherClimate 0 Can directly and indirectly affect organisms 0 Examples I Temperature metabolism I Wind moisture loss I Sunlight photosynthesis o Terrestrial plants especially responsive to temperature and moisture Global Variation in Climate 0 Temperature driven largely by solar radiation 0 At equator hit at 90 warm temperatures 0 Angle becomes increasingly shallower towards poles cold temperatures Precipitation 0 In uenced by temperature and air circulation o Hadley cell I Formed by warming and cooling of air I Creates a cyclical cell of circulation N and S of equator More on Hadlev cell 0 Air heats at equator Warm air holds more moisture Rising air cools causes rain Cool air ows north and south Cool air sinks o Warms as it descends picks up moisture from the land Other Cells 0 Similar process causes Ferrell cells N amp S of Hadley cells 0 Also forms polar cells at either extreme of globe My 0 Caused by I 23 tilt at earth s axis I Revolution of the earth around sun 0 Results I Boreal north amp austral south summers I Transitional spring and fall I More pronounced with latitude Regional Variation in Climate o Caused by topographic features 0 Mountains I Causes air to rise cool and release moisture I Slopes facing water ocean large lakes wet side I Opposite slopes drier rain shadow o Oceans I Modify temperature due to high specific heat of water Key Abiotic Factors Regulating Ecosystems o Terrestrial ecosystems I Temperature I Precipitation 0 O O O Week 7 Ecology BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic o Aquatic ecosystems Sunlight Nutrients Terrestrial Ecosystems 0 Soil retain nutrients Nutrients don t become limited as easily 0 Large regions characterized by distinct vegetation types Biomes 0 Each biome has distinctive temperature and precipitation regime Annual average temperature precipitation Annual variation in temperature precipitation 0 There are as many as 14 or more distinct terrestrial biomes that have been described 0 Focus on 6 most common Tundra Tundra Temperate deciduous forest Subtropical hot desert Boreal forest taiga Temperate grasslands 0 Temperature Average annual temperature very low Average variation in temperature high 0 Precipitation Average annual precipitation low Average variation in precipitation low Boreal Forest Taiga 0 Temperature Average annual temperature low Average variation in temperature high 0 Precipitation Average annual precipitation low Average variation in precipitation low 0 Dominant plants trees scrubs and perennial herbs Temperate Deciduous Forest 0 Temperature Average annual temperature moderate Average variation in temperature high 0 Precipitation Average annual precipitation moderate Average variation in precipitation moderate Temperate Grasslands 0 Temperature Average annual temperature moderate Average variation in temperature moderate o Precipitation Average annual precipitation low Week 7 Ecology BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic I Average variation in precipitation moderate 0 Subtropical Deserts 0 Temperature I Average annual temperature high I Average variation in temperature moderate o Precipitation I Average annual precipitation very low I Average variation in precipitation low 0 Tropical Wet Forest 0 Temperature I Average annual temperature high I Average variation in temperature low 0 Precipitation I Average annual precipitation very high I Average variation in precipitation high 0 Aquatic Systems 0 Nutrients easily lost I Advection sinking 0 Productivity limited to regions of adequate light I Function of depth and water clarity o Freshwater Ecosystems o Lentic systems I Still or slowly owing waters I Lakes and ponds I Swamps marshes bogs o Lotic systems I Rapid owing of water I Streams o Lakes and Ponds 0 Horizontal structure I Littoral zone shallow enough for rooting vegetation I Limnetic zone too deep for rooted vegetation 0 Vertical structure I Photic zone enough light for photosynthesis I Aphotic zone not enough light for photosynthesis o Benthic zone bottom of lake or pond o Marshes Swamps and Bogs o Marshes lack woody plants 0 Swamps have trees 0 Both have slow owing water 0 Both typically connected to lakes or streams o Bogs stagnant amp highly acidic due to decomposition o Lotic Systems 0 Rapid unidirectional water ow 0 Streams rivers and creeks I Rivers big stream Week 7 Ecology BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic I Creeks little stream 0 Linear progression I Early low temperature low nutrients high oxygen I Mid warmer temperature higher nutrients lower oxygen I Late warmest temperature highest nutrients lowest oxygen 0 Estuaries o Formed where river meets ocean o Mixture of fresh and salt water 0 Very productive 0 Marine Ecosystems 0 Like lakesponds zones determined by depth 0 Horizontal I Intertidal covered and uncovered by tides I Coastal Neritic portion of ocean over continental shelf I Pelagic Oceanic portion off continental shelf 0 Vertical I Photic I Aphotic