NSC and Interagency
NSC and Interagency PSC 321
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 321 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Frazier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see US National Security in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
National Security Council and lnteragency Cooperation 0 National Security Council NSC 0 Created in 1947 by the National Security Act President Truman o Responsible for coordinating all agencies related to national security 0 Serves to assist the president on national security affairs 0 Statutory members besides the president who is the chair of the NSC 39 Vice President gt choses best options provided by the depts 39 Secretary of State 39 Secretary of Defense 39 Secretary of Treasury 39 National Security Advisor gt chooses which options to give the Prez 39 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff JCS gt military advisor 39 Director of National Intelligence DNI gt intel advisor o Adjunct advisors can be added from meeting to meeting depending on which issues are most important at that time 39 Adjunct advisors functional directorates and geographic directorates 0 Functional directorates headssecretaries of different govt agencies 0 Geographic directorates regional specialists o NSC teams should agree on one strategy recommendation but NSA gets final say as to which recommendation is given to the President 0 Bush s interagency process think of the list below as a circle starting and ending at the Prez 0 Prez 0 Policy Coordination Committees 39 Ppl that formulate policy and provide possible options to the issue 0 Deputy Committees 39 NSC State Dept Def Dept JCS DCI US UN Treasury Dept o Principle Committees 39 Key ppl involved on specific security issues 0 how to prioritize issues 0 High priority use secretariesdept heads 0 Low priority use ambassadorsadjunct advisors o Negotiation use State Dept 0 Military force use Defense Dept 0 lnteragency competition 0 Who s intel is bestmost reliablemost accurate 0 Which dept offers the best option on an issues 39 Dept w best option will get the President s attention 0 Each agency has its own culture of operation 0 How to mesh the quotculturesquot and have agencies work together to produce joint decisions History 19th Century 0 Executive branch in charge wo much oversight o NavyStateWar Depts reported directly to the President 0 Congress reorganized based on oversight of depts o Formed committees in 1816 and served as liaisons to depts For appropriations appeals I Allowed NavyStateWar Depts to by pass Prez to get funds to do things 0 State Department 0 2 arms diplomats political and consular service business 0 Little congressional support gt lack of desire by Congress to spend S abroad 0 Developed an elitist reputation I Only the wealthy could afford to do this type of service 0 Military 0 Small in size increases during war shrinks back down to prewar state 0 Separation of army and navy due to different cultures and fighting methods 0 Decentralized I Run by staff officers not the people actually fighting abroad 0 Technology allowed for more direct control over operations and military personnel I Allowed staff officers to run things more efficiently 0 Results of 19th century strategy making 0 Agencies did things their own way wlittle overall coherency in strategy I Led to problems in policy and strategy I Ex SpanishAmerican War 0 Policy had to adjust to ground action instead of ground action having to adjust to policy 0 Ie the mission drove policy instead of policy driving the mission History 20th century 0 Professionalism of civil service win the State Department 0 Rogers Act 1924 merged diplomatic and consular service via FSO exams 0 Porter Foreign Service Building Act 1926 upgraded embassies and staff I Meant to enhance US global presence and prestige 0 Better resource management in the military 0 Joint ArmyNavy board for coordination 0 Budget Act 1921 est new bureau of budget and provided info about defense spending 0 Idea was to increase transparency of department spending and S allocation 0 Foreign policy and national security are more in public domain 0 Thinktanks formed more people taking an interest in US domestic and internatl affairs O Publicpolicy centers est to conduct independent research I Carnegie Endowment 10 Brookings 16 Council on Foreign Relations 21 WW2 forced departments to reorganize O O Unified command structure after Pearl Harbor PostWW2 understanding that coordination was necessary in a new world environment Cold War new environment wchallenge of containing the soviets O Necessary now large military nukes Alliance management and participation in institutions Required better integration of landseaair power intel and diplomacy to avoid misunderstandings Policies of brinksmanship and Mutually Assured Destruction MAD National Security Act 47 O O O O Centralized power and clarified responsibility for national security and defense Est National Security Council Joint Chief of Staff and Combatant Commanders and Secretary of Defene Created the Central Intelligence and Director of Central Intelligence I Est intel community gt CIA Military FBI Allowed civilians to enhance their control of the Def Dept 1960s I Centralized decisions on weapons I New methods of analysis to improve efficiency and economy I New planning programming and budgeting system PPBS Congress does more 0 Legislative Reorganization Act 70 I Expands congressional staff creates Govt Accounting Office and Congressional Research Service Budget and Impoundment Act 74 I More control and review over the President s budget requests War Powers Act 74 I Curtailed unilateral war making by the President 0 Ie Give Congress more of a say in deciding to go to war New Intelligence Committees I Covert Ops Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court All of these efforts by Congress fell short of its ideal oversight goal particularly w coordination of security Department of Defense Reorganization Act 86 O O O O O JCS chair gains statutory membership on NSC gt autonomy from military branches Combatant Commanders CoComs given control over all forces in their area of responsibility AOR Focus on joint cooperation gt plan train and equip forjoint fighting Continued problems Interagency work focused on cooperation to end conflicts rather than cooperation throughout all phases of war I Ie Cooperation during war but little cooperation in postwar reconstruction No consideration for nontraditional security problems Post 9 11 0 Homeland Security Department formed 0 Change from DC to DN Director of National Intelligence 0 Coordinates w16 intel agencies to prevent quotoversteppingquot and maintain coherence o NSS documents have focused on interagency work and importance 0 Ex Natl Sec Presidential Directive NSPD 60 I Focus on strategic planning wpolicy coordination across natl sec establishment Conclusions 0 Interagency cooperation continues to improve 0 Interagency requires maintenance and training 0 Tension bwn depts over management of action in situatoins 0 Should the mission drive the department s response or should the department s response to a threat drive the mission 0 NSC is key to interagency cooperation o NSC strength is affected by the following 0 National Security Advisor I Weak vs strong I Broker vs promoter 0 Does NSA broker policy plans with the president or does heshe promote whatever policy the president creates 0 President s leadership style I Formal vs informal discuss issues in meetings or over lunch I Collegial vs adversarial does president just surround himself wsupporters 0 President s knowledge of national security and foreign policy 0 International and domestic context what is occurring at home and abroad 0 Relationship bwn NSC priciples I How to fulfill all principles while trying to get agencies to work together
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