Psych 306 Chapter 14
Psych 306 Chapter 14 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
Chapter 14 Paraphilias and Sexual Variants What is a Paraphilia oz Researches have attempted to de ne normal or abnormal in one of three ways 0 Statistical approach behavior is considered normal or conventional if a large number of people engage in it and abnormal or unconventional if only a few people do it Sociological approach calls a behavior unconventional if it is not customer within a society Psychological approach focuses on the psychological health of the individual and the impact that behaviors have on this heath 393 Historical Perspective 0 Thomas Aquinas declared four categories of unnatural acts masturbation bestiality sodomy and unnatural positions of intercourse Feud believed that any type of sexual behavior that took precedence over heterosexual vaginal intercourse was an indication of impaired psychosexual development Simon stated that sexual evident is the inappropriate or awed performance of a conventionally understood sexual practice Perversion can be thought of as a disease of sexual desire not only in the sense that it appears to violate the sexual practices of a time and pace but also because it constitutes a violation of common understanding that render current sexual practice plausible According to Simon deviance is a problem of control while perversion is a problem of desire Paraphilia general term for a group of sexual disorders in which repeatedly engaging in or fantasizing about unusual behaviors is a preferred way of obtaining sexual arousal and gratification must be negative consequences for it to be a disorder oz Prevalence O 0 Sexual variant unusual behaviors that are engaged in for variety and not as one s preferred manner of becoming sexually aroused Occasionally fantasies are not unusual 393 Multiple and Related Paraphilias O O O In a study 62 admitted to having committed a previously concealed deviant sexual behavior Most had developed their sexual interests and fantasies by age 12 or 13 Many studies found that individuals in treatment for one type of paraphilia often engage in other paraphilia s The Courtship Disorders 393 A group of paraphilias voyeurism exhibitionism frotteruism and telephone scatopilia often seen together 393 Men who engage in these paraphilias also meet the criteria for pedophilia and a minority of them engage in rape oz Fourphase sequence when interacting sexually O O O O O 9 Finding phase in this phase we locate and appraise a potential sexual partner Af liate phase in this phase we make verbal and nonverbal overture smiling looking talking to the potential partner Tactile phase here physical contact touching hugging petting take place Copulatory phase sexual intercourse occurs Courtship disorders have an extreme intensi cation of distortion which one of these four phases 9 06 O O O O Voyeurism Repeatedly seeking sexual arousal by observing nude individuals without their knowledge or consent Aroused by the risk of discovery A similar paraphiliac behavior is an erotic preference for masturbating to pornographic videos or photographs when attractive sexual partner of the individual preferred age and sex are readily available Voyeurism is a disorder of the rst phase the nding phase 393 Exhibitionism O O O O O O Exposing one s genitals compulsively in inappropriate settings in order to obtain sexual grati cation Disorder of the af liate phase of courtship They engage in the behaviors compulsively it is their preferred means of sexual arousal Most victims are women and children In some cases of exhibitionism occur among people who are intellectually impaired Only about half have erections while exposing themselves many masturbate right after while fantasizing about the expe ence Best response is to give no facial or verbal reaction Many expose themselves in the same location 3 Obscene Phone Callers O O 0 Telephone scatophilia a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by making obscene telephone calls Disorder of the af liate phase of courtship The arousal is proportionate to the victim s reaction og disgust shock fear They want complete anonymity 0 They masturbate either during or after the call 0 Most engage in 4 other paraphilias 0 Best advice is to hang up immediately 00 Frotteurism o A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by rubbing ones genitals against others in public places 0 Disorder of the third phase the tactile phase 0 Seek out crowded busses Pedophilia 00 A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved primarily and repeatedly through sexual activity with children who have not reached puberty yet 0 They must repeatedly seek sexual relations with children Fetishism Transvestism and Related Paraphilias 0 Fetishism o A condition is which sexual arousal occurs repeatedly when using or fantasizing about an inanimate object 0 Women s undergarments boots body parts shoes 0 Operantclassical conditioning 0 Transvestism o A condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by dressing as a member of the opposite sex transvestic fetishism Large majority are married men Most cross dress in privately May masturbate while cross dressing 13 of the adult male population 0 Related FetishLike Paraphilias o Urophilia sexual arousal caused by urine or the act of urination o Coprophilia sexual arousal caused by feces or the act of defecation o Mysophilia a condition in which sexual arousal is caused repeatedly by lth or lthy surroundings o Klismaphilia a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved repeatedly by being given an enema Many self administer the enema but some receive it from partners Some use warm water alcoholic solutions or coffee 0 Bestiality the act of having sexual contact with an animal 17 of boys raised on a farm had sexual contact with animal OOOO o Zoophilia using sexual contact with animals as the primary means of achieving sexual grati cation Most common is oralgenital Vaginal intercourse with female animal I Masturbating the animal Receiving anal from male animal Common reasons are pleasurable sex and animal s unconditional love Rare and a sign of sever psychological problems Sadomasochism O 06 O 00 O 09 o 9 o 9 O O O 06 90 06 Sadism a condition in which individuals repeatedly and intentional in ict pain on others in order to achieve sexual arousal Masochism a condition in which individuals obtain sexual pleasure primarily from having pain andor humiliation in icted on them The linkage of the two above behaviors is sadomasochism SampM 0 Many people enjoy being bitten slapped pinched or pinned down during sex Domination ruling over and controlling another individual In sexual relations it generally involves humiliation of the partner as well Submission obeying and yielding to another individuals In sexual relations it generally involves being humiliated by the partner Asphyxiophilia a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved by restricting breathing Sadism is often focus on unconscious anger directed at one s mother Masochism is sometimes explained as sadism directed at oneself SampM results from early associations of pain or aggression with orgasm Other Paraphilias O 90 O 90 O 90 Necrophilia sexual arousal by a dead body Some kill to obtain corpses Vampirism narratophilia vomerophilia stigmatophilia autogynephilia autoandrophilia What Causes Paraphilias O 00 O 00 O 0 Genetic predisposition abnormal brain function bad experiences during development psychological trains and sociallearning processes Freudian therapists believe that the are the result of arrested psychosexual development often due to failure to resolve emotional con icts Learning theorist attribute it to learn associations Therapy Little evidence that therapy works Cognitivebehavioral therapy has had some success Paraphiliacs are increasingly being treated for hypersexual disorder Serotonin inhibits which reduces sexual behavior