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Notes for week of November 9-13

by: Loren Agee

Notes for week of November 9-13 197

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Biology > 197 > Notes for week of November 9 13
Loren Agee


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This include notes from the week of november 9-13. Animal Nutrition, Animal Form and Function, and Circulation notes.
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Wade Nichols
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Loren Agee on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Biology in Biology at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 11/16/15
Animal Nutrition   Animals are heterotrophs so they have to obtain energy through eating other  organisms.  o Three types of organisms as defined by their diets   Herbivores­ extensively eat plants  Carnivores­ extensively eat other animals  Omnivores­ eat both plants and animals  Humans are typically omnivores Input from eating  The diet of an animal must supply 3 basic components o Chemical energy­ caloric content  Used in cellular respiration to produce ATP o Organic molecules­ to provide building blocks of macromolecules  Protein, polysaccharides, nucleic acid, lipids o Essential nutrients­ vitamins and minerals   Required for optimal function of process Essential Nutrients   An animal can’t produce these on their own and need to get them from their diet  Essential amino acids­ humans can only synthesize 12 of 20 amino acids  o Remainder must come from food  Essential fatty­ acids­ serve as precursors for phospholipids and steroids  o Found in meat, dairy, eggs, grains, and nuts Vitamins and minerals   Vitamins­ molecules that aid to biological process o Diseases associated with in sufficient vitamin intake  o Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins  B Vitamins usually cofactors for enzymes  Vitamin C is involved in biosynthesis of connective tissue  Vitamin D helps absorb and use calcium  Vitamin K helps with blood­clotting­injection to newborns  Essential minerals­ inorganic nutrients o Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, iodine, ect. Undernutrition  The consumption of too few calories  Body will begin breaking down muscles for fuel  Current estimate by WHO is 820 million people are undernourished Malnutrition  The consumption of too few essential nutrients o Lack of protein is most common worldwide  Rice­based diet provides calories but too little protein o Vitamin and mineral malnutrition are next  Vitamin A deficiency is worldwide problem Processing Food  Mechanical and chemical processes are used for animals to access nutrients  from food  Four main steps o Ingestion­ eating or feeding  Filter feeding, substrate feeding, bulk feeding, or fluid feeding o Digestion­ breaking down the food into absorbable molecules  Mechanical and chemical digestion both occur o Absorption­ uptake of small molecules by the animal’s cells  o Elimination­ undigested material passes through digestive system Digestion  The chemical and enzymes used in digestion could cause harm to the animal’s  cells they are contained. Digestion takes place in specialized compartments  within the animal.   Some animals have a cul de sac for digestion called a gastrovascular cavity  o Food is processed in batches  Food enters mouth, food is processed and absorbed, waste is  eliminated via the mouth Alimentary Canals   Most animals have an internal tube with openings at each end called the  alimentary canal o There may be elaborate, modified chambers along the tube and even  some accessory components that branch off from the tube o Movement of material occurs by involuntary muscle contractions called  peristalsis  o Movement from one compartment to another is controlled by muscular  valves called sphincters  Mouth  Mouth­ digestion begins immediately  o Chewing mechanically breaks food into smaller pieces  o Saliva contains enzymes called amylases that break down starches  o Mucus protects mouth and allows food to move through the system more  esily  o Food passes from the mouth to the esophagus when swallowed  Entry into the trachea is blocked by the epiglottis and glottis Stomach   Digestion continues in the stomach   Gastric juice is secreted by cells that line the stomach  o Extremely acidic­pH2  Enzyme that degrade macromolecules like protease   Mucus protects stomach tissue from gastric juice  o Gastric ulcers result in exposed areas of tissue  Thought to be caused by stress and diet, but now known to be  caused by bacterial infection of the stomach  o Strong muscles surrounding hte stomach keep churning the mix called  chyme Small Intestine­ Digestion   Much of the digestion and almost all of absorption occur here  Digestion  o Digestion of macromolecules occurs with the help from accessory organs  Pancreas produces amylases, proteases, nucleases and lipases  Also produces bicarbonates which neutralize pH of chyme  Liver produces bile which aids in utilization of lipids   Stored in gallbladder until secreted into small intestine o The small intestine produces digestive enzymes itself o Some molecules are modified with the help of bacteria that live in the  small intestine  Small Intestine­ Absorption   Absorption of nutrients occurs at the surface area of the small intestine  o Highly convoluted structures maximize surface area  Large villi of cells that possess microvilli on their surface  o Nutrients are absorbed by the cells at their apical surface and exit the  basal surface to enter blood vessels   Travel to the liver, then throughout the body   The liver detoxifies and also makes decisions about  nutrient distribution  Large Intestine   Primarily involved in reabsorption of water   Colon­ most of the length of the organ  o As undigested material moves through the color, the cells remove water  o Feces gets drier and firmer as it moves along   Rectum­ end of large intestine o Holding place for feces until defecation via the anus   Appendix­ involved in immune function and also archive for flora  Evolutionary Adaptations To Diet   Evolutionary adaptations result in anatomical changes based on diet   Different teeth are optimal for plant or animal food sources   Carnivores tend to have short intestines compared to herbivores  o The cecum serves little role in carnivores and omnivores but is extensive  in herbivores   It harbors mutualistic microorganisms that help digest plant  material more efficiently   Cows have high modified stomach with four distinct chambers to improve  digestion of plant cellulose 


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