Popular in Elements of Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Moriah Cheng on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
Reviews for notes3.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/16/15
Cheng l 10 November 2015 0 Gender Differences Cognitive Ability 0 Gender Similarities Hypothesis men and women are much more alike than different 0 Women score slightly higher on verbal tasks 0 Men score slightly higher on spatial tasks differences observed from 910 months of age 0 Reasons evolutionary adaptation gender roles socialization interaction experiences with teachers parents etc 0 Gender Differences Aggression O Aggression behavior that is intended to harm another person 0 Overt Aggression direct physical or verbal harm 0 Relational Aggression behavior meant to harm the social standing of another person Gossip spreading rumors etc 0 Relational aggression make up a larger percentage of girls aggression than it does for boys 0 Men spend more time using overt aggression 0 Gender Differences Sexuality 0 Men engage in more masturbation view more pornography engage in more casual sex and have more permissive attitudes about causal sex than women 0 Women are more likely than men to have engaged in sex with partners outside their stated sexual preference 0 Male sexuality is more targetlimited 0 Defining Sexual Orientation 0 Origins of Sexual Orientation O Orientation is NOT due to observational learning or modeling Gay parents siblings peers have no difference 0 Likely multiple causes Genetic heritability 35 males 19 females Prenatal hormone and brain differences Hemisphere are more symmetrical in women and gay men Epigenetics more males in a family higher likelihood of homosexuality Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion 0 Theories of Motivation 0 Optimum arousal theory individuals are motivated to maintain an optimum level of internal arousal Too low raise it Too higher lower it 0 YerkesDodson Law performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal Cheng 2 O Maslow s Hierarchv of Needs Strongest needs bottom must be filled before higher needs on the top Physiological needsgt safetygt love and belonginggt esteemgt self actualization O SelfDetermination Theory three basic needs are innate in everyone Competence our ability to bring about desired outcomes 0 Selfe icacy belief in our competence to accomplish a goal or task 0 Mastery ability to gain skills and overcome obstacles Relatedness the need to engage in warm relations with other people Autonomy feeling in control of our own lives 0 Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation Intrinsic internal engaging in a behavior because we enjoy it Extrinsic external engaging in a behavior because of some external reward Adding extrinsic reward can destroy intrinsic motivation O Selfregulation controlling our own behavior in order to pursue important objectives Delay of gratification putting off a pleasurable experience in pursuit of a larger reward later Best variable for predicting life success Some people are born with more selfregulation than others but you can always train more Acts like muscle more tired the longer it s used Worse at night self regulation used up all day long 12 November 2015 Emotion feeling or affect that can involve physiological arousal conscious experience and behavioral expression 0 Biological sympathetic fight or ight parasympathetic calming Theories of Emotions O J amesLange theory emotions result from an interpretation of our physiological state I feel sad because I m crying Perceive external stimulus gt physiological arousal gt interpretation of physiological change gt emotion O CannonBard theory emotions and physiological reactions occur at the same time I feel sad and I m crying Perceive external stimulus gt physiological arousalemotion simultaneous and independent 0 Twofactor theory of emotions emotion is determined by two factors physiological arousal and cognitive labeling Epinephrine experiment 4 groups 2 people epinephrine explained 2 people no explanation happy or angry confederate Cheng 3 Epinephrine explained no emotional change Epinephrine not explained emotional change based on environmental cues Perceive external stimulus gt cognitive labeling based on interpretation of external cuesphysiological arousal gt emotion Behavioral Factors 0 Facial Feedback Hypothesis facial expressions can in uence emotions as well as re ect them Smiling can make you happier Culture and Emotions 0 Display Rules sociocultural standards that determine when where and how emotions should be expressed 0 Many facial expressions of emotion do not differ significantly from one culture to another 0 Nonverbal emotional cues very from culture to culture 0 6 universal emotions sadness fear surprise disgust anger happiness Emotions in Text 0 Human brain reacts to emoticons as real faces Just a few decades after they were invented emoticons have becomes an indispensable part of online communication so much so that the human brain now reacts to them in the same way as a real face Classifying Emotions O Valence pleasantness or unpleasantness O Negative a ect anger guilt sadness 0 Positive a ect joy happiness interest 0 Arousal intensity of the emotion active vs passive High ruusul Tense Mari N e Y39MH Excited SirEiiEtl Elnled Upsbi Happy Luw Positive High ll39ulemte quotswim 39Ii39nlenre Sud nnienl Depres sad Sara lit ieih u rgit lie lam Fuiigued ulln low musuil Chapter 12 Personality What is Personality 0 Personality enduring distinctive thoughts emotions and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world Psychoanalytic Theory Freud s theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality 0 Unconscious contains the memories knowledge beliefs feelings urges drives and instincts of which the individual is not aware Structure of Personality O Iceberg ego gt superego gt id Cheng 4 0 Id raw inborn instinctual Primitive drives related to hunger sex aggression and irrational impulses Driven by the pleasure principle 0 Ego provides a buffer between the id and the outside world Reality principle operates according to the rules of society Executive of personality makes decisions allows thinking 0 Superego the internal judge of the morality of our behavior Conscience makes us feel guilty Egoideal the perfect person motivates us to do what is morally right Unrealistic no one is morally perfect 0 Defense Mechanisms unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety 0 Conceals the source of the anxiety from themselves and others 0 We all use them 0 Defense Mechanisms Homophobia 0 Study examines the roots of homophobia 0 New study suggests intense hostility toward homosexuals may be linked to a repressed samesex attraction combined with an authoritarian upbringing
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'