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by: Dinha

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Nutrition for Health
Class Notes
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Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dinha on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 120 003 at University of New Mexico taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Nutrition for Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 11/16/15
▯ What happens to the food we eat? When we eat, the food we consume is digested, then the useful nutrients are absorbed, and, finally, the waste products are eliminated. Digestion is the process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules, either mechanically or chemically. Absorption is the process of taking these products of digestion through the wall of the intestine. Elimination is the process by which the undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body. The processes of digestion, absorption, and elimination occur in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract that is long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. DIGESTION Cephalic phase: In this phase hanger and appetite work together to prepare the GI to digest food. • Oral phase: Mouth and Esophagus Role of the mouth: Mechanical: Chewing (tongue, teeth) Chemical: Saliva (enzymes, lubrication, antibiotic & Lysozome action, bicarbonate); Salivary amylase – starch digestion. Saliva is secreted from the salivary glands. Five distinct tastes: bitter, sweet, salty, sour, and umami. Enzymes are complex chemicals, usually proteins that induce chemical changes in other substances to speed up bodily processes. Bolus: is the mass of food that has been chewed and moistened in the mouth. Peristalsis: rhythmic waves of squeezing and pushing contractions that move food, chime, and feces in one direction through the length of GI tract. Hydrochloric acid: is secreted by parietal cells and keeps the stomach interior very acid. It is extremely important for digestion because it starts to denature proteins. Chyme: a semifluid mass consisting of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices. Small intestine: is the longest portion of the GI tract, accounting for about two- thirds of its length. It is composed of three sections: duodenum, jejunum, and ileocecal valve. Most digestion and absorption take place in the small intestine. Bile from the gallbladder emulsifies fat to aid digestion. Insulin and glucagon are two hormones produced in the pancreas. They are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels. Glucose is our bodies’ most readily avail- able fuel supply. It’s not surprising, then, that its level in our blood is an important signal regulating hunger. When we have not eaten for a while, our blood glucose levels fall, prompting a change in the level of insulin and glucagon. Gallbladder stores bile. And bile emulsifies the lipids. Liver: processes and stores many nutrients. This organ also makes cholesterol and uses this lipid to make bile, a substance that prepares fat and fat-soluble vitamins for absorption. Hydrolysis: is a chemical reaction that breaks down substances by the addition of water. Pancreas: produces and secretes most of the enzymes that break down carbohydrates, protein, and fat in the GI tract. Additionally, the pancreas secretes bicarbonate ions (HCO ) that neutralize HCl in chyme when it enters the 3 duodenum. Enzymes secreted by the pancreas include pancreatic amylase, which continues the digestion of carbohydrates, and pancreatic lipase, which continues the digestion of lipids. Bicarbonate secreted by the pancreas neutralizes acidic chyme coming from the stomach into the small intestine. Passive diffusion: is the simple absorptive process in which nutrients pass through the enterocytes and into the bloodstream without the use of a carrier protein or the requirement of energy. Facilitated diffusion: is the absorptive process that occurs when nutrients are shuttled across the enterocytes with the help of a carrier protein. Active transport: an absorptive process that requires the use of energy to transport nutrients and other sub- stances in combination with a carrier protein. Endocytosis: an absorptive process by which a small amount of the intestinal contents is engulfed by the cell membrane (also called pinocytosis). Large Intestine: the final organ of the GI tract of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal and in which most water is absorbed and feces are formed. ▯ Occurs the absorption of: water, short chain fatty acids, oligosaccharides, electrolytes, and vitamin K. Transport of nutrients and wastes: • Blood: travels to all of our tissues to deliver nutrients and other materials and to pick up waste products. • Lymph travels through the lymphatic system and transports most lipids and fat- soluble vitamins. • Lacteals pick up most lipids and fat-soluble vitamins • Lymph nodes are clusters of immune cells that filter microbes and other harmful agents  


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