Week of 11/9 notes BISC
Week of 11/9 notes BISC BISC 1005
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
0 Managing nutrients o Homeostasis related to set points 0 Predetermined by our genetics 0 Detectors throughout our body Kidney Heart Digestive tract Storage cells 0 Send out hormones Cell signaling 0 Signal producing cell Hormones small proteins or other molecules 0 Target cell Receiving cells have protein receptors speci c for that molecule 0 Proteins Signaling molecules produce changes in the receiving cells Exist in the brain liver 0 Hydrophilic molecules have cellsurface receptors Cannot cross over fatty cell membrane Must produce proteins within the cell membrane itself Must bind to cell surface receptor 0 Hydrophobic molecules have intracellular receptors Can move directly into cell Signaling Molecules and Hormones 0 Where are they working Autocrine on the cell 0 Produce the signal and respond to the signal Paracrine neighbors o Signaling cell is producing a hormone to help regulate neighboring cells that respond to that particular hormone Endocrine Long distance communication 0 Cells can be centimeters to meters apart 0 Travel in sap in plant cells 0 Travel in blood in animal cells 0 Outcome of either type of signaling is gene regulation Ultimate goal is to get inside cell and change gene regulation within that target cell 0 Food initiated health problems 0 Sensitivity a food consistently causes an unpleasant reactant Not an immune reaction 0 Intolerance inability to digest a compound within food no enzyme produced to break down the substance le Lactose intolerance can t produce the enzyme lactase to break it down 0 Allergy immune reaction Sensitized your body produces compounds to speci cally recognize the allergen immunoglobin E Anaphylactic shock Respiratory shut down Most common food allergies milk eggs peannuts tree nuts sh shell sh soy and wheat Avocado watch out this can indicate other allergies such as latex Soy allergy food prodeininduced enterocolitis syndrome Delayed food allergy Soy is one of the most common The reaction commonly vomiting and diarrhea usually occurs within hours after eating the trigger tather than minutes MSG Monosodium glutamate avor inhancer No positive production of Allergy antibodies Treatment 0 AntilgE therapy 0 The medication omalizumab ntereres with the body s ability to use lgE 0 Oral immunotherapy 0 Small doses of the food you re allergic to are swallowed or placed under your tongue The dose of the allergyprovoking food is gradually increased 0 Autoimmune response celiac disease Production of lgA ln ammation Loss of villi in small intestine Causes malnutrition o Gluten protein complex Wheat rye barley or related grains Proteins that give dough its elasticity Drugs sauces processed meats even candy Is a gluten free diet better than any other type of diet 0 No 0 replacement products have more fat and sugar 0 Doctors diagnose diseases or isssues o Intolerance l cannot produce a digestive enzyme ie Lactose intolerance o Allergy very speci c immune response related to production of a speci c type of antibody which causes a histamine cascade You must become speci cally sensitized to allergen you are exposed to it at some point and react sensitization means it learns the allergen and produces the antibody lgE o Autoimmune diseases celiac the presence of gluten causes the body s immune system to attack its own cells through the production of the antibody lgA How do you know when to eat 0 Leptin signals that your body has enough food Protein in your body that tells your system to stop being hungry Stop eating 0 Start burning stored energy This hormone is produced by your fat cells Greek word for thin o Ghrelin signals that your body needs food lncrease hunger Stop burning off stored energy Produced by stomach cells 0 Understanding blood sugar regulation 0 Scenario You have eaten glucose absorbed into the body This results in an increase in the blood sugar level 0 Normal blood sugar levels range from about 100mgdL to 140mgdL 0 When it gets above this level it needs to be stored as extra and the storage is insulin A protein hormone produced by the pancreas and will be released and will inform the body that sugar needs to be restored 0 Signal One from the blood stream and one inside liver cells 0 Blood stream glucose is moved into liver and muscle cells 0 Inside liver and muscle cells we need to form glycogen Glucose is bound together through old reactions dehydration synthesis resulting in glycogen 0 When you eat and fast for a long time Blood sugar drops below the set point because you have fasted which is a long period without eating Signal glucagon protein hormone that is produced by the pancreas The result liver and muscle cells break down glycogen via hydrolysis into glucose 0 ln bloodstream glucose will diffuse into bloodstream facilitated diffusion to restore normal blood sugar 0 Once set point is reached any excess becomes fat 0 ln Diabetes no insulin production 0 after eating Excess sugars must be excreted by the kidneys You cannot store glucose as glycogen because there is no signal telling the cells to store it as glycogen 0 after fasting no stores of sugar ketosis you break down fat to restore blood sugar But this cannot occur fast enough to restore blood sugar into normal range 0 can go into diabetic shock and can die because brain isn t getting the sugar it needs