Week of 11/9 Notes GEOG
Week of 11/9 Notes GEOG GEOG 1003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Monday November 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 11/16/15
For paper: page numbers, double spaced, 8 pages text. No title page but have a title Anthromes o Anthropogenic biomes, aka anthromes or human biomes Terrestrial biosphere in its contemporary, human-altered form using global ecosystem units defined by global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems o Near China and India: very heavy human influences (as seen on map) Endangered Species Act (ESA) o Came about in 1973 o During a time when there was a big consensus of environmental issues, signed into law by President Nixon o Administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration o History Near extinction of bison Disappearance of passenger pigeon WWII and creation of chemicals, based on petroleum derived compounds that were found to be toxic at different levels Idea of silent spraying as a result of die-off of bird populations as a result of DDT o Listing Process 5 criteria Means that the ES in question must be threatened in some way Over-utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific use Species is declining due to disease Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms Other natural or manmade factors affecting continued existence o Strengths and Weaknesses Positive results As of Sept. 2012 o 56 species have been delisted means that its numbers are big enough to not be considered an endangered species (unless it is delisted because it went extinct…) Successes o Bald eagle o Whooping crane o Peregrine falcon o Gray wolf o Gray whale o Grizzly bear o California’s southern sea otter o Red wolf Some people argue that the recovery of DDT- threatened species like the bald eagle, brown pelican, and peregrine falcon should be attributed to the ban on DDT in 1972 instead of the ESA Criticisms The success rate of only 1% is not very good. There are over 2,000 endangered species and only 28 delisted due to recovery Proves there needs to be serious reform in methods to help endangered animals and plants Encourages preemptive habitat destruction by landowners who fear losing the use of their land because of the presence of an endangered species— “shoot, shovel, and shut-up” Perverse incentives o A forest owner who, in response to ESA listing of the red-cockaded woodpecker, increased harvesting and shortened the age at which he harvests his trees to ensure that they do not becme old enough to become suitable habitat o These economists believe that finding a way to reduce such perverse incentives would lead to more effective protection of endangered species Biosphere/Geosphere/Sociosphere o Biocides Ecosystem Effects Biocide is a chemical substance or microorganism that can deter or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means Biocides are commonly used in medicine, agriculture Biocidal substances and products are employed as anti-fouling agents o Chlorine is a biocide for water treatment and disinfectant in swimming pools Many biocidal products pose significant risk to human health and welfare Great care is required when handling biocides and appropriate protective clothing/equipment should be used Connection between biocides and antibiotic resistance? Also adverse effects on the natural environment Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species Runoff can carry pesticides into aquatic environments while wind can carry them to other fields, grazing areas, human settlements, and undeveloped areas which can potentially affect other species Effects on Amphibians Amphibian populations have declined across the world which are thought to be due to pesticides Pesticides mixtures seem to have a cumulative toxic effect on frogs WHY ARE AMPHIBIANS PARTCULARLY VULNERABLE TO PESTICIDES? o THEY HAVE MORE PERMEABLE SKIN WITH POORS AND THEY CAN ABSORB IT MORE EASILY Tadpoles from ponds with pesticides take longer to metamorphose and this decreases their ability to catch prey/avoid predators Atrazine can turn male frogs into hermaphrodites which decreases their ability to reproduce Effect on People Sandra Steingraber o “Living Downstream: o She is a cancer survivor from a farming community Problem with pesticides Water contamination Poster child for effect of biocides in agrocommunities Pollinators o Effects on pollinators Relied on by plants and crops We think of honey bees as pollinators but there are many more, even ants Agencies such as EPA are working to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide risks through regulatory actions, voluntary changes to pesticide use by registrants and research programs amed at increasing understanding of factors associated with declining pollinator health Pollination is necessary to produce fruits and seeds A world without pollinators would be a world without fruit o Colony Collapse Disorder