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History 112

by: Sequoia Brown

History 112 History 112

Sequoia Brown
GPA 3.614

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Here are the notes from today, March 31, 2016.
American History Since 1865
Class Notes
History 112, Laura Foxworth
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
History 112 March 31, 2016 1960s Political Tension between Liberals and Conservatives Warren Court - 1954: Brown vs Board of Education - Legal rights for the accused: Gideon V Wainwright, Escobedo v Illinois, Miranda v Arizona - Upheld separation of church and state: Engel v Vitale 1963 o In regard to prayers to schools  Decide state employees cannot right prayers for students and make them participate  Does not out rule all prayer from schools - Established use of contraceptives by married couples: Griswold v Connecticut (1965) o Allowing contraceptives to be distributed without penalty o birth control allowed for married couples o court case extended in 1972 to unmarried couples - Overturned laws restricting interracial unions: Loving v Virginia (1967) - Thurgood Marshall appointed to Supreme Court 1967 o 1 black justice appointed o Chief Council from the Brown v Board o Was a part of the NAACP **contributes to the polarization of America Backlash to 190s Civil Rights Momentum - School desegregation in Arkansas - Selma march in Alabama - Klan rallies hooded and unhooded o Some state KKK don’t have to wear hoods because they will not get prosecuted o 1964- Anti- Integration rally *the idea of non- violence - African Americans went through training for non-violence - inspired by Gondi - Difficult to achieve because you have to deny these instincts to hit back and do nothing in retaliation - You cannot respond Controversial: because what does it achieve? - People are outraged if they see this violence happening - If no one sees you getting hurt, you are just injured L. B. Johnson and the Great Society (poverty and racial injustice is very important) - wants to abolish poverty - 1964: “This administration, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America…” - Extended reach of federal government programs beyond the New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal - Programs run through Department of Health, Education, and Welfare - How to define poverty? What causes poverty? o It is the job of the government to help people in need o It is a good investment - Att. General Robert F. Kennedy o says lack of education, old age, bad health or discrimination causes poverty War on Poverty - economic opportunity Act o targets unemployment, discrimination in employment, inability to get jobs because of lack of education - Community Action Programs o Empower to gain a voice in governing institutions - Urban Development: o Effects of residential segregation + economic inequality o Low income housing projects located in cities, not suburbs  It does not help residential discrimination  Targets housing for African American families o Problem: maintains racial separation Other Great Society Initiatives - PBS is established o 1965: Elementary and Secondary Education Act - “Head Start” program for pre-K learning - Medicare, Medicaid, Aid to families with Dependent children - Expansion of Social Security - Immigration Act of 1965: o Dismantled National Origins Act of 1920s - Public Broadcasting System Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (1962) Female scientist - Many scientist dismiss her because she is “a women who is over-reacting in emotional distress” Think about the Cold war here - Raised awareness about DDT and other pesticides by studying chemical impact o Carson called them ‘biocides’ because of chemical harm on nation world o Claimed DDT would accumulate in the food chain and affect humans - Combined with public anxiety about effects of nuclear warfare - Much push-back from petrochemical industry, farm producers, scientists - Gave rise to modern environmental movement by connecting chemical landscape use to declining human welfare o By 1986, many state outlaw the use of DDT Environmental Politics - 1964 Wilderness Act o 9.1 million acres of US forestry preserved in National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) o Prohibits industry on that land o Effected land west of the Mississippi River - 1963: Clean Air Act - 1966: Clean Waters Act - 1970: Environmental Protection Agency established - 1 Earth day is April 22, 1970 New Left and New Right 1960’s-1980 - The “Southern Problem gets national attention and momentum grows for political change - Martin Luther King Jr. really important in this movement o BUT not the only important person Challenging the Approach: Malcolm X - Thought that power was missing from Dr. Kings approach - Addressed civil rights in urban areas - Refused to embrace nonviolence o Advocated self-defense and distrust of whites  Seen as radical  Just because you reject non-violence it does not make you violent, you are just not advocated for someone hitting you and not doing anything  Black and whites have rights but seem like they do not - Integration is accepting the idea of white superiority - Advocated Black nationalism: o Economic self-sufficiency  Support black businesses  community empowerment  demand self-respect instead of tolerance - Viewed black America within larger context of decolonization and third world struggles o If you integrate into white society, you are not trying to change it from the top, you are excepting that the structure is ok and you are not doing anything to change society - Assassinated while giving a public address 2/21/65 - Inspiration for Black Power movement Major Congressional Victories Ensure Federal Protection of Civil Rights - Civil Rights Act of 1964 o Outlaws segregation in the Nation and the Federal government can intervene if not implemented o National Guard comes in to protect the people from the state police - Freedom Summer initiative in Mississippi - March 1965 o 50 mile march from Selma to Montgomery - 1965 Voting Rights act  Black people were not able to vote because being kept from the poles  Federal government can intervene if black people are being help from the poles  Economic and Cultural Equality is the NEXT goal Goals of the Late 1960s: Black Power **Malcom X symbolic figure for this movement  Takes idea of self-protection - Economic self-determination - Black ownership of governing institutions - Urban-focused o Poverty is not greatly solved o Residential segregation is still here o Police brutality done in urban area - Rejection of nonviolence - Increased value of African heritage o Black art does have to be the same as white art - Black is Beautiful Movement o Emphases black beauty o Women stop relaxing hair and wearing it natural o Dark skin is beauty o Black cosmetics starts to come about Black Power - Black Panther Party in Oakland, CA (1966) o ADVOCATE self-defense to 1 and 2 Amendments rights - 1966: Black panther “What we want what we believe” o Want freedom- the power to determine our own destiny o Full employment  Jobs: discrimination in employment holds black people back o End to Economic exploitation o Housing  Fit for human beings o End to police brutality and oppression  Set up self-defense groups to defend themselves o Fair trials for black defendants  Idea of trial by jury  Black people should be on the jury as well o Arrest of Huey Newton energizes and divides  Found guilty o Movement prompted considerable backlash  Leaders arrested: which up rises protesters o Provided youth programs for children  Community empowerment Old left- labor union struggles from the Gilded Age to the late 1910s The New Left New Left: Students for a Democratic Society (18-20 year olds) - White college students organizing SDS chapters on college campuses (start in Michigan) o Reject Cold war infrastructure o Reject Cold War conformity - Port Huron Statement (1962) explains their political outlook: o Rejection of Cold War bureaucracy and conformity - Connection to civil rights movements and tactics - “Democratic alternative” o We do not live in a Democratic society because it has a hug bureaucracy - Wanted to protect civil liberties and freedom of thought - Rejected the draft Fall semester after Freedom Summer Free Speech Movement - Fall 1964 at University of California- Berkeley - Administration tries to curb radicalism by eliminating site for distribution of political literature - Students rally and hold sit-ins on campus to protest violation of free speech; led to massive student arrests o Sit in: some lasted for 32 hours o Students start practicing non-violence  Force the police to drag their bodies  800 students arrested  Free speech rallies held daily - Faculty ultimately supports students right and opposes police actions


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