Week 7 Psych 202 Lecture
Week 7 Psych 202 Lecture PSY 202
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Week 7 Psych 202 Lecture Psychopathology Psychopathology refers to mental disorder mental distress and or abnormalmaladaptive behavior 0 The disease model of psychopathology is most commonly used within psychiatry Pathology refers to disease processes or a disorder 0 ln Psychology psychopathology is conceptualized on a continuum DiseaseDisorder vs DimensionContinuum Abnormalities in Relation to Psychopathology Personal suffering Subjective distress Violates normal standards of conduct Disability Harmful Dysfunction Statistical Approach abnormal ifrare Diagnosable behavior conforms to speci ed patterns Models of Psychopathology Etioloov Cause Diathesisstress o Combines biology and environment Transactional Models of Psvch0patholoov 0 Individual embedded in contexts 0 Causes may exist within different contexts but express themselves in the individual 0 50 of Adults with be diagnosed with a mental disorder in their lifetimes Classi cation of Disorders 0 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 DSM5 0 Problems Based on subjective judgements and norms within a given social context Culturally lnsensitive Western construction of mental disorder EG hearing voices in some cultures valued Does week job of considering development Maltreatment During Childhood will lead to 0 Depression 0 Anxiety o Aggression Autism Social De cit SocialEmotional reciprocity Nonverbal communication such as o Absentatypical use of eye contact facial expressions 0 quotwoodenquot body language 0 Developing Maintaining and understanding relationships Restrictiverepetitive Behaviors Hand apping Lining up toys Parroting words echolalia Developmental Course Gradual course of onset certain behaviors or lack thereof during rst 2 years gt typically around ages 34 0 Retrospect present in rst year Normalnear normal development followed by a loss of sills or regression during the 1St and 2nCI year 2047 0 Most regression involves loss of previously acquired language skill communication social cognitive and selfhelp 0 Generally do not regain skills immediately very few recover fully 0 Many show preexisting delays Rate of Autism Increase over the years 0 Historical Views 0 Bad parenting 0 Unusual speech patterns 0 Lack of selfawareness o Echolalia Interaction between Biology and Environment MMR Vaccine multiple studies 0 Time trend studies show no evidence of sudden rise autism linked to the vaccine 0 Japan ceased using MMR but rate of ASD still increased sharply Mercury Multiple studies 0 Denmark removal of mercury from vaccines in 1992 was followed by increase in diagnostic rates of ASD 0 Rates of ASD increased in US Sweden and Denmark despite signi cant decreased in exposure ASD Risk Factors 37 heritability Candidate genes being identi ed Irregularities in several regions of the brain Irregular neurotransmitters identi ed serotonin Cognitive De cits Tom is the capacity to attribute states of mind eg emotions desires goals to other people and is a key factor in social interactions Environmental Risk Factors Advanced parental age Maternal illness during pregnancy Labor and delivery problems oxygen deprivation to baby brain Prenatal exposure to pollution and pesticides Use of some medications during pregnancy Adult Psychopathology 23 individuals with a mental illness do not seek treatment Diagnostic System Strengths O Categorize disorders in terms of observablereportable symptoms 0 Common language to talk about presenting problems Weaknesses O Implies person disordered or not 0 Does not handle comorbidity well 0 Culturally insensitive O Developmentally insensitive Mood Disorders 0 Characterized by persistentepisodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life 0 95 of US 18 will have a mood disorder in any given year 0 2X as many women suffer from depression 0 0 Lack of support Gender roles 0 Cross cultural differences 0 Manifest depression with physical complaints Maior Depression 0 o Bipolar o o 0 Severe negative moods or lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities sleepingeating disturbances loss of energy Less common than depression Episodes of major depression Episodes of mania Elevated mood Increased anxiety Diminished need for sleep Grandiose ideas Racing thoughts Extreme distractibility 0 DSM 5 Criteria 0 o Etiology o 59 symptoms Same symptoms in a 2week period Cognitive Negative tradeview of the world Attributional style Stuannal Stressors Social Isolation Biological Genetics 0 Depression concordance rates between identical twins 2 3 times higher than rates between fraternal twins Neurobiology of Depression Neurotransmitters especially Serotonin Lowered serotonin affects depression Schizophrenia 0 Symptoms of psychosis that profoundly alter patients affect thought perceptions or consciousness Svmptoms 0 Positive Excess of functioning Delusions Hallucinations Loosening of associations 0 Speech patterns in which thoughts are disorganized or meaningless Disorganized behavior 0 Negative Lack of emotion Slowed speechmovement Su o Paranoid o Catatonic motor abnormalities 0 Disorganized loss of reality inappropriately affect o Undifferentiated marked by multiple features 0 Residual history of one episode still has some symptoms Brain disorder 0 Characterized by brain differences Reduced brain tissue in frontal and medial temporal lobes o Occurs in individuals are genetically predisposed to it 0 Environmental Factors 0 May be triggered by environmental stress Urban setting double the risk Social Class 0 Social drift The tendency of individuals with mental illness to drift to lower socioeconomic classes Social Causation Chronic Stress of living in an urban environment may lead to increased rates Expressed Emotion 0 Families high in expressed emotion are overinvolved with each other are overprotective and voice selfsacri cing attitudes toward family member with schizophrenia while 0 Critique People with schizophrenia who elicit more expressed emotion may already be more prone to relapse Family members may have some form of psychopathy 0 Support Interventions that reduce family expressed emotion reduce relapse rate in individual with schizophrenia Anxiety Disorders Characterized by intense and pervasive anxiety or fear in absence of true danger 18 prevalence in US Phobic Disorder fear of object or situation Generalized Anxiety Disorder diffuse constant anxiety not associated with speci c object or event PTSD involves nightmares ashbacks to earlier trauma 0 After a traumatic event 0 Reexperiencing of traumatic event 0 Cultural and sex differences Women more predisposed 0 Abuse 25 of rape survivors suffer PTSD 45 years after rape 0 Combat and war related trauma Exposure to combat Military sexual trauma 13 of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan 0 Risk Factors Social Severity duration proximity of trauma 0 Social Support Psvcholooical factors Preexisting distress Feeling loss of control Biological Factors Physiologicalhyperactivity Genetics 0 Generalized Anxietv Disorder Symptoms Excessive anxiety and worry dif culty controlling it o Restless o Easily fatigued o lrritability 0 Sleep disturbances PanicDisorder sudden overwhelming attack of terror OCD Frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive behaviors o Obsessions persistent thought impulse or image that feels intrusive and inappropriate and is dif cult to suppress or ignore o Compulsions repetitive behavior or mental act that a person feels compelled to preform Etiology Cognitive o Anxious individuals perceive ambiguous or neutral situations as more threatening than nonanxious 0 Stuannal o Anxious responses may develop when another person39s anxious response is o
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