Week 1 to 6 Lecture Notes - General Chemistry
Week 1 to 6 Lecture Notes - General Chemistry chem 142
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shringar on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to chem 142 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Carroll in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Notes on Chemistry 142 General Chemistry 2015 – 2016 Notes on atoms, molecules & ions and Quantum Mechanics & Atomic Theory:- 1. Wave particle duality behave more like particles. Bohr’s model of a hydrogen atom 2. motion when subjected to a constraining potential 3. System – the part of the universe we are interested in 4. Surroundings – the universe 5. potential energy of molecules 6. Electrostatic – intermolecular attractions and chemical bonds. (Molecular potential energy) 7. Chemical internal energy: Internal energy of a chemical system includes kinetic and 8. Wave mechanics: An electron can adopt only certain standing wave patterns of 9. Bright spots: constructive interference 10. Dark spots: destructive interference 11. Wavelength: distance between two consecutive peaks in the wave. 12. Frequency: number of waves for cycles that pass a given a point. 13. Blackbody radiation: continuous electromagnetic radiation emitted from heated objects. 14. Fraunhofer lines: when passed through a prism, white light is spread out. 15. Electromagnetic radiation: energy that exhibits wavelike behaviour and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum. 16. Bond length: distance between nuclei of two connected atoms. 17. Bond energy: energy required to break given chemical bond or form one. 18. Electron Affinity: the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom. 19. Electronegativity: relative ability of an atom to attract shared electrons to itself. Molecular kinetic energy: Translation Rotation Vibration Notes on Bonding: General Concepts:- 1. Atomic Radii decreases to the right because of increasing nuclear charge Notes on Chemistry 142 General Chemistry 2015 – 2016 2. Atomic radii increases top to bottom because of increase in principal quantum number 3. Alkali – easily oxidized – loss of electrons – I.E. – soft metals 4. If Reactivity increases then Ionization Energy decreases 5. Nuclei is densely packed/ heavy 6. The greater electronegativity difference, the more ionic character 7. Electro-negativities different – polar bonds. Example: Each ion in a salt is surrounded by six ions of opposite charge so it has polar bond. Types of bonding: 1. Ionic bonding 2. Polar covalent bonding – unequal sharing 3. Nonpolar covalent bonding – equal sharing of bonding pair Net Dipole Charges Examples:- Carbon dioxide – no net dipole (cancels out since its linear/180 degrees) Water – net dipole (has charge since it’s not linear) Notes on Stoichiometry:- 1. Solutions containing cations and anions that can form an insoluble ionic compound are mixed, the insoluble compound will precipitate. 2. In acid and base chemical reactions, there is always water produced as a by-product. 3. Precipitation and neutralization reaction can occur simultaneously. 4. The limiting reactant of a chemical reaction is just the reactant that gets used up first. 5. Empirical formula of a compound shows the number and types of atoms in each formula unit of the compound. 6. Percentage yield = actual yield / theoretical yield X 100 7. Theoretical yield is the maximum possible amount of a substance that the reaction can produce. 8. Molarity (M) = moles of solute / Litres of solution Strong acids: Oxyacids – nitric acid, sulfuric acid Group 7 acids – hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid Two chlorine oxyacids – chloric acid, perchloric acid Notes on Chemistry 142 General Chemistry 2015 – 2016 Behaviour of Ionic compound dissolved in water:- Ions are hydrated Separate from their solid crystal Become individual ions in solution