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chapter 1

by: Nashay Small
Nashay Small
GPA 3.0
Dr. Chavira

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About this Document

This is chapter 1 for midterm 1. These notes include not only the lecture notes, but some notes from its corresponding chapter in the Abnormal Psychology book.
Dr. Chavira
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nashay Small on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 127A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Chavira in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 11/17/15
Lecture 1 Book notes Chapter 1 Abnormaliavcholoqv OVERVIEW 0 Monique 0 has a substance abuse problem with both alcohol and narcotics 0 does this run in the family family aggregation 0 John 0 developed schizophrenia at the age of 21 when the signs become apparent and start to set in Once they hit 21 years of age without being treated they can not be helped I case of normalcy before until illness sets in 0 when do disorders begin to appear Criteria must be met before someone is given a specific diagnosis by asking the patients questions and applying previous research a clinicianpsychologist can effectively diagnose a patient WHAT DO WE MEAN BY ABNORMALITY 0 there is no one behavior that makes someone abnormal This is why there isn t a universal definition of abnormal or disorder 0 some cues as to whether or not a person has a form of a mental disorder is 1 suffering is not an all that is needed or a must be a part of the symptoms symptom for diagnosing a patient However people with depression andor anxiety disorders usually express this symptom 2 Maladaptiveness interferes with our well being and ability to enjoy work or relationships This is often an indicator of abnormal behavior and examples of this is a person with bulimia withdrawing from food until they are emaciated 3 statistical deviancy just because there are outlying behaviors does not mean that it is abnormal behavior such as perfect pitch or savant syndrome Even what is statistically normal may still be abnormal behavior or abnormal such as the common cold 0 If something is statistically rare and portrays undesirable behaviors such as intellectual disfunction we are more likely to consider that behavior as abnormal o as opposed to statistically rare and highly desirable such as being a genius o and statistically common but undesirable such as rudeness 4 Violation of the standards of society When people fail to follow the conventional social and moral rules of their cultural group An example of this would be cannibalism being the form of normalcy for some cultures but would be abnormal behavior for the people in American society 0 Most likely to be viewed as abnormal when it is statistically rare and deviates from the standards of society in an undesirable way 5 Social discomfort the lack of social discomfort can be a cue to abnormal behavior An example of this could be when someone comes and sits down in the seat right next to you even though there are many open seats 6 Irrationality and Unpredictability Whether or not a person can control their behavior is a sign of abnormal behavior such as terrets or bipolar disorder 7 Dangerousness a good indicator but can not be the only tool used in diagnosing patients because soldiers are violent but is that a mental disorder Some patients want to harm others andor themselves and that can be classified as a mentalabnormal disorder Dangerousness is more the exception rather than the rule to mentally ill people culture plays a big role in how what is abnormal and what is not abnormal behavior is de ned 0 Decisions about abnormal behavior involves social judgments and the values and expectations of the society at large 0 not one element is sufficient to determine a disorder and what is considered abnormal changes as societal norms and standards change 0 Advantages of classification are 0 further research 0 faster treatment 0 social and political implications 0 Disadvantages of classification are 0 stigma o stereotyping o labeling 0 Just because people understand that mental illness is caused by problems in the brain does not mean that they are any less prejudice to those with mental illness 0 culture affects how abnormal and mental disorders are classified 0 an example could be the variation in how depression is treated in China focusing on physical ailments such as headaches and fatigue rather than how depression is treated in America verbalizing their feelings hopelessness 0 some disorders are also culture specific which means they are only within the culture HOW COMMON ARE MENTAL DISORDERS 0 Mental health epidemiology is the study of the distribution of mental disorders in a given population 0 prevalence is the number of active cases in the given population There are different types such as I Point prevalence the estimated number of actual active cases of the disorder within a population at a given point of time An example would be studying a population and counting the number of bulimic cases through January 1st of the following year they would have had to have remained with the mental illness all the way from January 1st to January 1st of next year NO ONE WHO WAS DIAGNOSED AFTER THE SET DATE WOULD BE COUNTED IN THE POINT PREVALENCE POOL I 1year prevalence is when the experimenter would count everybody who was diagnosed with the mental illness throughout anytime of the year within the given population allows for more people to be counted and so experiments with this type of prevalence would be higher in opposition to point prevalence I Lifetime prevalence a person within the population who would have been diagnosed with the studied mental disorder within any time frame of their lives the highest type of prevalence out of the other two types of prevalences o The most common cases of mental disorders based on 1year prevalence cases are 0 depression 0 alcohol abuse 0 specific phobias small animals insects flying heights 0 social phobias o Comorbidity is when a person exhibits two or more mental disorders usually in severe mental disorders 0 in mild mental disorder comorbidity is the exception rather than the rule RESEARCH APPROACHES IN ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY 0 Research allows physicians to o understand the conditions of the disorder such that if the disorder is acute not that serious chronic very serious 0 and to understand the etiology of disorders or the reasons behind the mental disorder occurring SOURCES OF INFORMATION 0 case studies 0 selfreport data 0 observational approaches 0 direct observation be sure to reference dimensional systems in lecture 1 week 1 0 research domain criteria Lecture 2 Book notes Chapter 3 Causal factorsand viewnoints o trying to explain the causal factors behind abnormal behaviors by analyzing theoretical perspectives and the different types of causal factors that each perspective identifies CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS FOR ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR 0 need to distinguish between 0 necessary 0 sufficient o contributory I causes when addressing abnormal behavior because we must also regard the time frame of the causal factors for a disorderabnormal behavior 0 distal causal factors some causal factors occurring early in life and then appearing as affects years or a time period later 0 loss of a parent early in life and then years later having depression o proximal causal factors causal factors operating shortly before the disorder begins to become prevalent o disappointing event at school or with a friendship could lead to depression 0 reinforcing contributory factors tends to maintain maladaptive behaviors preventative to your life with relationships and social that is already occurring 0 eating disordersbulimia with models due to the encouraging behavior for success in model industries I these causes can form a loop or chain reaction in such that proximal causal factors could also be distal causal and thus lead to other disordersabnormal behaviors later in life 0 causal pattern is when more than one causal factor is involved in the abnormal behavior Diathesis stress Models based on how stress and diathesis preexisting vulnerability can lead to a person developing a disorder additive model 0 are based on the types of causal factors from one or more distal necessary or contributory causes but is NOT sufficient to cause the disorder 0 there must be a more proximal or undesirable eventsituation the stressor that may also be contributory or necessary but not sufficient by itself to cause the disorder except in someone with the diathesis I someone who has the genetic background of this disorder when put under great stressors has more susceptibility to acquiring the disorder protective factors are derived from personal experiences or certain characteristics against the accumulation of risk factors and stress that could lead to disorder enable a person to acquire resilience and thus persevere through troubling environments and events 0 however people who show resilience in one domain could show significant difficulties in other domains I the Nature and Nurture example on page 59 had the diathesis for the depressive disorder gene that then resulted in the environment contributing to the appearance of the disorder due to stressful factors 0 Melinda was in a caring stable environment that created a level of resistance protective factors for her when she undenNent a stressful time that activatedstimulated her diathesis 0 However Tracy lived in an unstable environment that ultimately lead to her lacking in protective factors and resilience when she was exposed to stressors that activated her depressive diathesis making it harder to fight off the disorder


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