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Notes Lecture 10

by: Keziah Notetaker

Notes Lecture 10 14407

Marketplace > Brooklyn college > Psychlogy > 14407 > Notes Lecture 10
Keziah Notetaker
Brooklyn college
GPA 3.4
Psychology 2100
Alison Barren

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Psychology 2100
Alison Barren
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.


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Date Created: 11/17/15
Lecture 10 Conformity and Groups Conformity Change in behavior due to the real or imagined in uence of others Conforming for normative normal reasons Standing in line when you see others doing so instead of seeing what they re all waiting for This is mainly done to avoid being seen as the odd person standing out Informational Social In uence Conforming due to beliefs that others interpretation of ambiguous situations are more accurate than yours Related to pluralistic ignorance the lack of knowledge which leads to assuming that you know less than everyone else Example You re on the train when the conductor comes over the speakers making an announcement You don t know what was said but you see everyone getting off at the next stop so you do the same thing assuming that everyone else heard the announcement Example Sherif Autokinetic Light Study 1936 0 Participants are placed in a dark room alone and a light is ashed rst in one spot then in another Asked to estimate how much the light moved There is a lot of variance in their answers 0 Participants are brought together and do it as a group The answers end up being much closer due to participants conforming to group estimates 0 The reasoning behind this is similar to why you stand in a line instead of nding out why the line was formed you naturally don t want to seem out of place so you end up just copying what everyone else is doing Accuracy plays a role in Informational Social In uence Example Participants were quickly shown a picture of the suspect then shown a lineup picture in which the suspect likely looks different than before making it more challenging to spot them 0 Three of the participants were actors who gave the wrong answer on purpose 0 There were two groups 0 Group A was told they were helping improve a new test used with police and would be paid 20 if they gave the right answer Group B was simply told it was a test under development 0 Group A was more likely to agree with the actors because having external motivation of the money made them want to get the right answer which they assumed everyone else would want too People tend to conform for information when 0 The situation is ambiguous o The situation is a m 0 Others are experts trusting police remen doctors etc Negative Outcomes Contagion A rapid spread of emotions fear worry anxiety or behaviors through a crowd Mass Psychogenic Illness Group with similar physical symptoms but no known physical cause Example A teacher was sure she smelled gas while in the classroom and started to complain of a headache and other symptoms soon after her students started saying they had the same symptoms after a thorough inspection of the area no gas leaks were found Conformity Private Acceptance Genuinely believing others are right Public Compliance Maintaining your own belief internally while conforming publicly externally Two main motivating factors of this are not wanting to stand out and not wanting to be labeled a knowitall Normative Social In uence Conforming from our desire to be liked and accepted by others Social Norms Rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors values and beliefs of all members Two Types of Social Norms l Injunctive Norms Perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved by others ie recycling is good to do 2 Descriptive Norms Perceptions of how people actually behave ie despite knowing that recycling is good most people won t do it Asch LineJudgement Study 1951 0 Participants were asked to estimate line length by matching the one line they re shown to it s best fit out of a group O Confederates hired lab workers gave the obvious wrong answer there are always at least 4 0 About 75 of participants conformed at least once With just one ally person agreeing with participant conformity dramatically decreased Normative Social In uence Social Impact Theory Conforming to social in uence depends on 3 things 1 Strength importance of group to you 2 Immediacy proximity of group how close is it to you 3 Number increased group size Obedience Following rules usually without question Milgram Study 0 Milgram really focused in on the aspect of automatic obedience even if told to do awful things Participants obeyed being told to shock another participant about 65 O The main reason was because they shifted the blame onto the lab tech so if anything went wrong they wouldn t feel responsible for it This allowed them to emotionally disconnect from the human they thought they were hurting Reasons for Obedience Normative Social In uence not wanting to stand out you re more comfortable if someone else does it though Example Teachers in the Milgram experiment had a less difficult time saying no when asked to continue shocking if two of their friends who had participated prior had said no as well If another Teacher takes the role of experimenter you ll trust them less due to Lack of authority Loss of personal responsibility SelfJustification and post decision dissonance Justifying each level of shock because of being a little more than the last one OutlineGroup Processes De ning Groups Individual Behavior in the Group 0 Social Facilitation to improve you 0 Social loafmg more likely to hold you back Groupthink A group of 3 people who interact and are interdependent 0 Groups vary in composition and function 0 Members tend to share characteristics partly because of shared interests goals Reasons to join groups 0 Evolutionarily adaptive ostracism from a group hurts so you will try your hardest to stay especially helpful in early times when you had to ght things off to live 0 The need to belong it feels good to be helpful and needed Defining the Self the groups you join become a part of your identity Social Norms Rules of a group that apply to all of its members Social Roles Rules about how specific people in the group are supposed to behave 0 Example Gender roles 0 Example Boss vs Secretary Explicit Social Roles Apply to broader relationships ie who s boss of the company Implicit Social Roles Apply to narrower more personal relationships ie who s the leader within your click of friends Zimbardo s Stanford Prison Experiment 1971 O Showed the power of internalizing social roles 0 Half of participants were assigned as guards o The other half were simply arrested and brought in O No instruction was given but the experiment was cut within a few days due to the brutality Group In uence on Individual Behavior Social Facilitation Performance enhancement in the presence of others when being evaluated however evaluation apprehension leads to arousal and enhances the dominant response because of this easy familiar tasks are performed better while difficult unfamiliar tasks are performed worse Social Loa ng Performance reduction from presence of others when not being evaluated due to being less individually responsible this can lead to people slacking and becoming free riders Not being evaluated leads to relaxation which means performing worse on easy familiar tasks and possibly performing better on difficult tasks Reducing Social Loa ng Strategies for this include increasing importance of the task and potential for evaluation Individual differences within Loafing Collectivists and women both tend to loaf less Deindividuation Loosening of constraints of behavior when deidentified caused by anonymity less accountability and less self awareness Decisions in Groups Groupthink When group interaction inhibits good problem solving Preconditions 0 Highly cohesive group and isolation 0 High stress Symptoms O Illusion of invulnerability o Belief in moral correctness Avoiding Groupthink o Remain impartial especially as the leader save your opinion for later 0 Seek outside andor anonymous opinions Group Con ict Con ict The presence andor perception of incompatible goals between two or more people Social Dilemma A situation in which a selfinterested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for the group this is one type of con ict 0 Example Panera CARES program Where customers pay What they want it s great for everyone bene tting customers but bad for the group Panera


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