19th Century Europe
19th Century Europe HIST 100
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at George Mason University taught by Scala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Week 12 notes 11/17/2015 ▯ The Resiliency of the Old Order and Rise of the “-isms”: Restoration, Revolution, and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe ▯ th ▯ “The Long 19 Century” (1789-1914) European politics fundamentally changed by French Revolution, but conservative reaction seeks to stem the tide Competition between varying ideologies (“-isms”) on backdrop of ongoing economic and social modernization (Industrial Revolution) The rise of nationalisms and its variable impact ▯ ▯ Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 Meet to reestablish European order following Napoleonic wars and French revolution Austrian diplomat—conservative reaction to French revolution Set the contours for European politics Outcomes: o Bourbon monarchs who had ruled France, are restored to the French thrown o Constitutional monarchy is established o Number of German states reduced from 300 to about 30 o Set up German confederation o 1834 establish German customs union to limit tax barriers within the German states Poland still doesn’t really exist Balance of power reestablished—GB, Russia, Austria, Prussia and France are leading powers Fast growth of population and urbanization ▯ ▯ Different Ideologies in the 19 century Liberalism (Classical Liberalism) o Belief in individualism and that all men are born equal in rights, end to privileges and powers of traditional aristocracy o Protect natural rights and liberty o Ensure rule of law by creating constitutional form of government o Not everyone has the right to be elected or vote Democrats or radical republicans argue that all men should have voting rights while others say you have to have a certain amount of property to be able to vote o Functions of govt. should be limited to protect rights Conservatism o Most traditional—the prerevolutionary order or absolutist monarch is the god given order o Opposed to French revolution and liberalism o Importance of gradual reform and preservation of traditional elements Socialism o Men and society can be improved o Rejected idea that private property was the basis of liberty—it is the cause of inequality and injustice o Must have social equality o Political rights alone can’t ensure social equality o Industrial revolution reflected this inequality o Capitalism is irrational o Utopian socialists Everyone is joint owners of productive property o Revolutionary Socialists Capitalism has to be overthrown by rebellion o Karl Marx—dominant socialist thinker Societies and social epochs are defined by how labor and property are organized and controlled Each social system creates social classes Competition between social classes leads to historical change Capitalism was about to become useless after it’s success Human progress required working class to overthrow the state and establish socialist form of government with public control over all productivity Social rights and social equality Social classes and conflict will disappear all together as would governmentCommunism Historically determined process Nationalism o Not single political program—feeling of belonging to a larger political community o Central role, but variable role, in European politics o Most often associated with the people and linked with liberal ideas o Patriotism Romanticism o Cultural phenomenon—not political o Generally tied to nationalism o Predominate trend in cultural and intellectual life o Reaction to enlightenment o Focus on emotion, subjectivity, nature, individuality, and supernatural o Neo-gothic architecture o Folklore ▯ ▯ France 1848 series of revolutions: signal for other revolutions in other countries o referred to the springtime of nations o combo of liberal political philosophy and national orientations 1830: Louis Phillip (the citizen king) is put into power but by 1848 he was not well liked anymore Liberals used banquets to push for constitutional change 1848: Liberal and socialist forces ban together and force Louis Phillip to advocate—coalition of liberals and socialists commission to study unemployment in France o creation of public workspaces for unemployed Disputes among socialists and liberals o Costs and implications of programs o Liberty for all men and a system of private property Growing class tension in Paris and around France June 1848: Working groups and rebel workers rise up against government o New constitution to ensure order over rights Louis Napoleon Bonaparte becomes president of second republic o Engages in a coup d’état and declares himself emperor 1851 and onward: Second Empire sparks other European countries ▯ ▯ German lands (Prussia and Austria) Liberals and socialist come together and demand assembly to establish constitutional order and German national unification Liberals and socialist are initially successful in getting the king to take control of the situation Assembly in Frankfurt discuss greater Germany vs. lesser Germany o Hard to create both national state and constitutional state ▯ ▯ Russia No real uprisings, Czar sends in troops to put down rebels in other European cities and capitals No successful establishment of constitutional order anywhere Nationalism takes on a different political orientation and used more by conservative forces ▯ ▯ England (the exception) Reform gradually and avoid dramatic events associated with French Revolution Series of reform bills (3)—passed by Parliament o 1832, 1867, 1884 o recognized large cities and growth, took seats away from rotten boroughs o increase number of individuals who could vote ▯ ▯ Unification of Italy Failed revolutions take place More conservative drive by Piedmont-Sardinia for unification in Italy o Initiates war with Austria 1859: drive for unification continues Garibaldi and Red Shirts initiate conquest of the Kingdom of the Two Sicily’s nd Victor Manuel 2 meets with Garibaldi and wants him to take a more conservative stance on unification Unification fully complete by 1866 in the north, and by 1870 in all of Italy Vittoriano ▯ ▯ Unification of Germany Liberal forces switch to conservative forces Conservative leaders see nationalism as an opportunity to bolster their own standings Keiser Wilhelm I Nationalism as a tool for conservative unification 1864 Bismarck goes to war with Denmark o Bismarck rally all German states including Austria and Prussia and leads to national unification 1866 Bismarck goes to war with Austria o Prussia and Austria go to war 1870 Franco-Prussian War The German Reich (unified Germany)—Austria is not included ▯ Ottoman Empire is struggling to keep up ▯ ▯ ▯ TAKE AWAY: Clash of ideologies during the “long nineteenth century” represent the new shape of politics in a Europe transformed by the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution The various “-isms” offer differing answers to the pressing political and social issues of the day Nationalism becomes a key factor, playing a central, though variable, role in European politics. Failure of liberal “Springtime of Peoples” gives way to more conservative forms of nationalist. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯