Week 12 Notes
Week 12 Notes INR3003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beatriz Arteaga on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INR3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Clash of Civilizations Part II I Islam vs the West 0 Islam39s quotBloody Bordersquot There has always been a conflict with Islam Rise of Islam the Crusades rise of the Ottoman Empire the last of the Islamic Caliphates West rises through industrialization expands and pushes back on Islam Huntington says there were not civilizational clashes Points out that conflict is likely to erupt on fault lines of civilizations specifically points of Islamic fault lines bloody borders For example border with IsraelArab IndiaPakistan and RussiaChechnya II Critiques of the Clash of Civilizations A Essentialism Africa and Islam Saying that the people within lines on the map are quotessentiallyquot the same Huntington has grouped people who might not share the same characteristics For example Western civilization Christian religion not accurate Identifies a quotpotentialquot African civilization Geography agriculture skin color African region is the MOST diverse in the entire world Also identifies an quotIslamic civilizationquot which is VERY Iarge Huntington uses religion as the commonality A lot of differences within the quotIslamic civilizationquot Language customs even other religions within the area Christianity Judaism Edward Said renamed quotClash of Ignorancequot attacks Huntington as being a racist Huntington NEVER says we are the same only essentially B Too Monolithic quotWest of the restquot statement Focuses too much on differences and not enough on similarities C Can it be measured There is no way to provemeasure Huntington39s view D Liberal Critique Does not leave enough room for cooperationmutual understanding and international organization Liberals say that postCold War we have seen MORE cooperationmutual understanding within organizations Point out just because we have differences doesn t mean we cannot get along E Realist Critique States are primarily concerned with security of the state This quotcivilizational identityquot is way too broad see states as the individual F The Global Standard Critique Fukuyama etc This is those who believe the world is moving towards a global standard coming into conformity along WESTERN lines universal system Civilizational context does not matter Fukuyama believes the world will desire democracy as the form of government world will continue to adopt it Fukuyama also points out that all over the world the Western model is emulated the most As China has developed they have become less communist and more capitalist Fukuyama Religious governments Yes they still exist but they hold very little appeal among their own people contained repressive Arab Spring people began to rise up and put pressure on their government calling for democratic values rights voting etc Do not see the world dividing into civilizational categories see us being united through a political ideology being democracy III In Huntington39s Defense Says he does not argue that civilizational identities is the ONLY identity Does say that differences between civilizations are real and important The conflict between civilizations WILL be the dominant form of conflict By quotWest and the restquot he means all the other states will not stay as pawns but become ACTORS in the world Political Islam quotWhy do they hate usquot quotTheyquot NOT Muslim world but the radicals within those states and move freely amongst the states as well Was not that big of an issue until after 911 article came shortly after Huntington would say quotBecause we have fundamental differences and bc of that we are unable to see eye to eyequot Osama Bin Laden said clearly it was done in the name of religion fundamental difference Article is problematic because it is vague in pronouns they us Brief History of Islam One of the newer traditions JudeaChristian roots all three share history Abrahamic traditions All three trace back to Abraham and his sons All three see an image of Prophet Muslims see Jesus as prophet Christians see him as the Messiah Muslims see Muhammad as THE prophet the last one Christians see him as a prophet A Muhammad 570632 Born in Mecca in Saudi Arabia major trade oasis Muhammad saw corruption in Mecca and felt that they needed to get back to religious foundations 610 fled Mecca was visited by the angel Gabriel who told him to recite then came about the Quran Muhammad began to preach this reform gained followers mainly lower middle class and threatened the leadership of Mecca Elite in Mecca put pressure on Muhammad causing him to flee to Medina 622 n Medina he raised an army and united the government established himself as the political and military leader Takes over Mecca and unite most of the Arabian Peninsula under his control B Ummah quotCommunityquot created by Muhammad He removed tribal distinctions and created a common identity amongst believers C Five Pillars 0 Prayer Shahada Alms Ramadan Hajj Cores of Islam Prayer five times a day facing Mecca Shahada quotthere is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophetquot saying when one convert to Islam Alms giving charity to the poor Ramadan month of fast 9th month of the lunar calendar Hajj the pilgrimage to Mecca D Christianity vs Islam Clash of Civilization context Jesus is viewed as quotdivinequot and Muhammad is viewed as a prophet not considered divine Christianity only has the Bible Islam has the Quran and also the Hadith and Sunna 1 Quran Hadith and Sunna Hadith sayings of the prophet Sunna the traditions based on Muhammad39s life and actions 2 Islam39s Relationship to the State and Role of Conquest Jesus was never part of the same he was seen as a threat to Jews and Romans Role ofJesus is in opposition to the state crucified on the offense of heresy Muhammad on the other hand represented the state 0 Shariah Fusion of the state and religion by Muhammad Shariah is Islamic Law Christians do not see quotconquestquot as part ofJesus39s life but Muslims see Muhammad as a conqueror Radicals believe that they are supposed to continue this conquest E Caliphates 1 Orthodox or quotRightly Guidedquot 63261 Muhammad died 632 and he did not leave a successor Caliph successor First Caliph was Muhammad39s father in law AbuBakr started this quotright guidequot Expanded Islam by diplomacy religious conversion and conquest a Four Uniting Bonds All Islam conquered territories shared these bonds religion languageArabic connection of tradeeconomy and Shariah b Legitimists Shiites vs Umayyads Sunnis Legitimists believed that legitimacy flowed through Muhammad39s blood line Only person who could serve as a Caliph needed to be directly from Muhammad39s blood line Umayyads did not think they have to be from the blood line but from the Quraysh tribe Uthman was not part of the blood line meanwhile Ali was 2 Umayyad 661750 Sets the tone of the dominance of the Sunnis still evident today Capital was Damascus Represents the quotGolden Agequot of Islam and a major expansion of Muslim power and dominance Arab language spread through Asia and Europe Began to weaken from within rulers became less efficient corruption set in 750 the Caliphate came to an end pressure from Baghdad 3 Abbasid 7501258 In the beginning period still considered Golden Age Capital was Baghdad biggest city at the time Great advancements in the cultural arts architecture math sciences etc By the early 900s there are visible declines within this Caliphate internal weakening became vulnerable Saw multiple threats 0 Seljuks Crusades and Mongols Mamluks Seljuk Turks first threat to the Caliphate 1055 made it to Baghdad but did not remove the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate Seljuk39s pushed West and pushed into modern day Turkey at the time was the Byzantine Empire Famous battle 1071 Manzikert Turks won and pushed out Byzantine Byzantine cried out for help Pope answered the cry and Christians began to help the Byzantines fight back this brings the Crusades Final threat Mongols conquered everything following the same path as the Seljuk Turks East to West 1258 Mongols made it to Baghdad and that was the end of the Abbasid Caliphate Mongols were met by Mamluks in Egypt Mongols did not make it any further West Mamluk Sultanate 12501517 4 Ottoman Empire 12991923 Established by Ottoman Turks grew to be very powerful at a quick rate Many reforms of Islam modifications of Shariah conforms to a different culture 1517 with the fall of the Mamluks it led to a Caliphate SO Ottoman SULTAN was also the CALIPH This is the last Caliphate Began to weaken when the West began to rise Renaissance Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution West began to take away land from the Ottoman Empire through colonization and imperialism During WWI was nicknamed the quotSick Man of Europequot 1923 was remains from the empire is Turkey under leadership of Mustafa KemalAtaturk His goal was to unify with the West and secularize Turkey 1924 abolished the Caliphate This separated Turkey from the Islamic world but it has not been accepted by the West torn status 0 Goal of extremists is to reestablish a Caliphate Goal of ISIS Quraysh tribe Muhammad was from AbuBakr Muhammad39s father in law Umar Uthman Sunni Caliph pick Ali Shiite Caliph pick Ataturk father of Turkey WWI hero