Chapter 13 & 14
Chapter 13 & 14 MGMT 306
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Chapter 13 Power and Politics A Definition of Power refers to the capacity that A has to in uence the behavior of B so B acts in accordance with A s wishes It is a capacity or potential an important aspect of power The greater B s dependence on A the greater A s power is in the relationship It is based on alternatives that B perceives and the importance B places on the alternatives A controls Money is often a dependence factor in power and politics but it is not the only means Contrasting Leadership and Power Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals Power does not require goal compatibility merely dependence Leadership however requires some congruence between goals of the leader and those being led Leadership research focuses on the downward in uence on followers Power research takes all factors into consideration Leadership research often emphasize style How supportive should leader be Research on power focuses on tactics for gaining compliance Leadership concentrates on the individual leader s in uence while the study of power acknowledges that groups as well as individuals can use power to control over control other individuals or groups Bases of Power Formal power is based on an individual s position in an organization It can come from the ability to coerce or reward or from formal authority 0 depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply At the organizational level A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss suspend or demote B assuming B values his job If A can assign B work activities B find unpleasant or treat B in a manner B finds embarrassing then A possesses coercive power over B Coercive power can also come from withholding key information 0 people comply because it produces positive benefits from someone who can distribute rewards they view as valuable It can be financial controlling pay rates raises and bonuses or nonfinancial recognition promotions interesting work assignments friendly colleagues preferred work shifts and sales territories 0 the formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization Personal power comes from an individual s unique characteristics There are two bases expertise and the respect and admiration of others 0 in uenced wielded as a result of expertise special skills or knowledge 0 based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits If I like respect and admire you you can exercise power over me because I want to please you Which bases of power are most effective 0 Of the three bases of formal power coercive reward legitimate and two bases of personal power expert referent research suggests that the personal sources of power are most effective Power Tactics options that people have for in uencing others like their bosses coworkers and employees Here are nine in uence tactics 0 Legitimacy your authority position 0 Rational persuasion using logical arguments and factual evidence 0 Inspirational appeals developing emotional commitment by appealing to target s values needs hopes and aspirations 0 Consultation supporting your target by involving them in your accomplishing of a plan 0 Exchange rewarding the target in exchange for following a request 0 Personal appeals friendship or loyalty o Ingratiation using attery praise or friendly behavior prior to making a request 0 Pressure using warnings or threats 0 Coalitions having others persuade the target to agree Rational persuasion inspirational appeals and consultation tend to be the most effective Pressure tactics tend to backfire and are typically least effective of the nine tactics Rational persuasion is the only tactic effective across organizational levels Inspirational appeals work best as a downwardin uencing tactic with subordinates Personal appeals and coalitions are most effective as lateral in uence The effectiveness of tactics depends on the audience People who comply with soft tactics are more re ective and intrinsically motivated they have high selfesteem People who comply with hard tactics are more actionoriented and extrinsically motivated and are more focused on getting along with others than on getting their way ability to in uence others to enhance their own objectives They are more effective at using all the in uence tactics Political skill is more effective when the stakes are high How Power Affects People Certainly there is evidence that there are corrupting aspects of power Research suggests that power not only leads people to focus on their selfinterests because they can but it also liberates people to focus inward and thus come to place greater weight on their goals and interests Powerful people react negatively to any threats to their competence People given power are more likely to make selfinterested decisions when faced with a moral hazard Power also leads to overconfident decision making Positive effects research suggests that if we have an anxious personality power does not corrupt us because we are less likely to think that using power benefits us Second the coercive effect of power can be contained by organizational systems Third when we express gratitude toward powerful people we make them less likely to aggress against us Power energizes and leads to approach motivation It can also enhance people s motivation to help others It is not so much that power corrupts as it reveals A study revealed that power led to self interested behavior only for those with a weak moral identity For those with a strong moral identity power actually enhanced their moral weakness Politics Power in Action consists of activities that are not required as part of an individual s formal role but that in uence or attempt to in uence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization It includes efforts to in uence the goals criteria or processes used for decision making Managers report some use of political behavior is both ethical and necessary as long as it doesn t directly harm anyone else Organizations are made up of individuals and groups with different values goals and interests This sets up the potential for con ict over the allocation of limited resources such as departmental budgets space project responsibilities and salary adjustments Gains by one individual or group are often perceived as coming at the expense of others within the organizations These forces create real competition among members for the organization s limited resources Most decisions have to be made in a climate of ambiguity where facts are rarely fully objective and thus are open to interpretation people within organizations will use whatever in uence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests This creates activities called politicking It is possible for an organization to be politicfree if all members of that organization hold the same goals and interests if organizational resources are not scarce and if performance outcomes are completely clear and objective Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior Research and observation have identified a number of factors that appear to encourage political behavior Some are individual characteristics derived from the unique qualities of the people the organization employs and others are a result of the organization s culture or internal environment Individual factors certain personality traits needs and other factors likely to be related to political behavior Employees who are high selfmonitors possess an internal locus of control and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior They believe they can control their environment individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor Organizational factors when an organization s resources are declining when the existing pattern of resources is changing and when there is opportunity for promotions politicking is more likely to surface Cultures characterized by low trust role ambiguity unclear performance evaluation systems zerosum winlose reward allocation practices democratic decision making high pressure for performance and selfserving senior managers will create breeding grounds for politicking o treats the reward pie as xed so any gain one person or group achieves has to come at the expense of another person or group Politicking by top management in a sense gives those lower in the organization permission to play politics by implying that such behavior is acceptable For people who have modest political skills or are unwilling to play the politics game the outcomes tend to be predominantly negative Strong evidence indicates decrease in job satisfaction an increase in job anxiety and stress increased turnover and reduced performance When both politics and understanding are high performance is likely to increase because the individual will see political actions as an opportunity When understanding is low individuals are more likely to see politics as a threat which can have a negative effect on job performance when employees see politics as a threat they show reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action blame or change Impression management Being perceived positively by others should have benefits for people in organizations It could help them get the jobs they want in an organization and once hired to get favorable evaluations superior salary increases and more rapid promotions The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is called Low selfmonitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities High selfmonitors are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation The Ethics of Behaving Politically Those who are powerful articulate and persuasive are most vulnerable to ethical lapses because they are likely to be able to get away with unethical practices successfully When faced with an ethical dilemma regarding organizational politics try to consider whether playing politics is worth the risk and whether others might be harmed in the process These notes are from Essentials of Organizational Behavior by Robbins Judge Chapter 14 Con ict and Negotiation A Definition of Con ict a process that begins when one party perceives another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something the first party cares about There are a wide range of con icts in organizations incompatibility of goals differences over interpretations of facts disagreements based on behavioral expectations and the like 0 con ict as seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication a lack of openness and trust between people and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees We need only to correct the malfunctions to improve group and organizational performance 0 encourages con ict on the grounds that a harmonious peaceful tranquil and cooperative group is prone to becoming static apathetic and unresponsive to needs for change and innovation This view recognizes that a minimal level of con ict can help keep a group viable selfcritical and creative 0 supports the goals of the group improves its performance and is thus a constructive form of con ict 0 con ict that hinders group performance is destructive Types and Loci of Con ict 0 Types of Con ict to understand con ict you must identify the type of disagreement or what the con ict is about Researchers have classified con icts into three categories task relationship and process o relates to the content and goals of the work 0 focuses on interpersonal relationships 0 is about how the work gets done 0 Of the three types relationship con icts also appear to be the most psychologically exhausting to individuals 0 Task con ict among top management teams was positively associated with their performance whereas con ict lower in the organization was negatively associated with group performance 0 Process con ict revolves around the delegation and roles 0 Loci of Con ict another way to understand con ict is to consider its locus or where the con ict occurs There are three basic types 0 is con ict between two people 0 occurs within a group or team is con ict between groups or teams 0 Thinking about con ict in terms of type and locus helps us realize that con ict is probably inevitable in most organizations When con ict does occur we can seek to manage the variables of the con ict process O The Con ict Process has five stages potential opposition or incompatibility cognition and personalization intentions behavior and outcomes Stage I Potential Opposition or Incompatibility this is the appearance of conditions causes or sources that create opportunities for it to arise Conditions are group into three categories communication structure and personal variables Communication can be a source of con ict arising from semantic difficulties misunderstandings and noise in the communication channel These factors can be barriers to communication and potential for con ict Con ict can also arise with too little or too much communication Structure includes variables such as size of group degree of specialization in tasks assigned to group members jurisdictional clarity membergoal compatibility leadership styles reward systems and degree of dependence between groups Personal variables includes personality emotions and values People high in the personality traits of disagreeableness neuroticism or selfmonitoring are prone to tangle with other people more often Stage II Cognition and Personalization this is where con ict issues tend to be defined where parties decide what the con ict is about A disagreement is a and does not mean it is personalized A may be aware that B and A are in serious disagreement but it may not make A tense or anxious and it may have no effect on A s affection toward B when individuals become emotionally involved they experience anxiety tension frustration or hostility Negative emotions allow us to oversimplify issues lose trust and put negative interpretations on the other party s behavior Positive feelings increase our tendency to see potential relationships among elements of a problem take a broader view of the situation and develop innovative solutions Stage III Intentions at this stage we have to infer the other s intent to know how to respond to this behavior Intentions intervene between people s perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior They are decisions to act in a given way Using two dimensions cooperativeness the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party s concerns and assertiveness the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy her own concerns we can identify five con icthandling intentions o assertive and uncooperative when one person seeks to satisfy his own interests regardless of the impact on the other parties to the con ict 0 assertive and cooperative when parties in con ict each desire to fully satisfy the concerns of all parties It is a search for a mutually beneficial outcome Parties intend to solve a problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view 0 unassertive and uncooperative a person may recognize a con ict exists and want to withdraw from or suppress it o unassertive and cooperative a party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponent s interests above his own sacrificing to maintain the relationship 0 midrange on both assertiveness and cooperativeness there is no winner or loser There is a willingness to ration the object of the con ict and accept a solution with incomplete satisfaction of both parties concerns Stage IV Behavior behavior becomes visible at this stage Includes statements actions and reactions made by con icting parties At the lower end are con icts characterized by subtle indirect and highly controlled forms of tension At the upper end includes strikes riots and wars figuring out what to do to deescalate a dysfunctional con ict as well as what to do when con ict is too low and needs to be increased Stage V Outcomes may be functional if the con ict improves the group s performance or dysfunctional of it hinders performance Functional outcomes Con ict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions stimulates creativity and innovation encourages interest and curiosity among group members provides the medium for problems to be aired and tensions released and fosters selfevaluation and change Con ict challenges the status quo and furthers the creation of new ideas promotes reassessment of group goals and activities and increases the probability that the group will respond to change Dysfunctional outcomes uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group Undesirable consequences are poor communication reductions in group cohesiveness and subordination of group goals to the primary of infighting among members Managing functional con ict the key to minimizing counterproductive con ict is recognizing when there really is a disagreement Successful con ict management should encourage open frank discussion focused on interests rather than issue They can have opposing groups pick the issues that are most important to them and focus on how each side can get its top needs satisfied Groups with cooperative con ict styles and a strong underlying identification to the overall group goals are more effective than groups with a competitive style Negotiation a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources Depending on how much the parties are going to interact with one another sometimes maintaining the social relationship and behaving ethically will be just as important as achieving an immediate outcome of bargaining Bargaining strategies there are two general approaches to negotiation o Distributive Bargaining o its identifying feature is that it operates under zerosum conditions any gain I make is at your expense and vice versa 0 The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie a set amount of goods or services to be divvied up 0 Parties A and B represent two negotiators Each has a target point that defines what she would like to achieve Each also has a resistance point which marks the lowest acceptable outcome the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement The area between these two points makes up each party s aspiration range As long as there is some overlap between A s and B s aspiration ranges there exists a settlement range in which each one s aspirations can be met 0 Integrative Bargaining o assumes that one or more of the possible settlements can create a winwin solution 0 It bonds negotiators and allows them to leave the bargaining table feeling that they have achieved a victory Even when you win you want your opponent to feel good about the negotiation The Negotiation Process Steps in the negotiation process 0 Preparation and planning before you start negotiating do your homework It helps to put your goals in writing and develop a range of outcomes from most helpful to minimally acceptable to keep your attention focused When you can anticipate your opponent s position you are better equipped to counter arguments with facts and figures that support your position Once you ve gathered your information develop a strategy 0 best alternative to a negotiated agreement it determines the lowest acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement 0 Definition of ground rules Determine who will do the negotiating where it will take place and the time constraints During this phase the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands 0 Clarification and justification when you have exchanged initial positions you and the other party will explain amplify clarify bolster and justify your original demands 0 Bargaining and problem solving the actual giveandtake in trying to hash out an agreement Parties make concessions 0 Closure and implementation the final step is formalizing your agreement and developing procedures necessary for implementing and monitoring it Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness Four factors in uence how effectively individuals negotiate personality moodsemotions culture and gender Personality Trait in Negotiation It appears that the degree to which agreeableness and personality more generally affects negotiation outcomes depends on the situation The importance of being extraverted in negotiation for example will depend very much on how the other party reacts to someone who is assertive and enthusiastic MoodsEmotions in Negotiation A negotiator who shows anger generally induces concessions You should show anger in negotiations only if you have at least as much power as your counterpart If you have less showing anger actually seems to provoke hardball reactions from the other side Faked anger is not effective A negotiator who perceives disappointment from her counterpart concedes more because disappointment makes many negotiators feel guilty 0 Researchers have found that negotiators who express positive and negative emotions in an unpredictable way extract more concessions because it makes the other party feel less in control Culture in Negotiations It appears that people generally negotiate more effectively within cultures than between them In crosscultural negotiations it is especially important that the negotiators be high in openness Negotiators need to be especially aware of the emotional dynamics in crosscultural negotiation Gender Differences in Negotiations Men tend to place a higher value on status power and recognition whereas women tend to place a higher value on compassion and altruism Women tend to value relationship outcomes more than men and men tend to value economic outcomes more than women Women tend to behave in a less assertive less selfinterested and more accommodating manner