Week 10 Notes: Lectures 19&20
Week 10 Notes: Lectures 19&20 HORT 1001
U of M
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbie on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Thomas Michaels in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Plant Propagation in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Lecture 19 Plant Growths Soils and Fertility Soil Texture Refers to the relative proportion of sand silt and clay particles in the soil 0 Sandbiggest and will cause gritty texture o Siltintermediate and will cause floury texture o Clayvery small and will cause velvety texture USDA Soil Texture Triangle Minnesota State Soil is Lester Soil and it is very high in clay Soil high in sand 0 Great drainage and aeration 0 Doesn39t hold waternutrients well least surface area Soil high in clay 0 Holds so much moisture plants have hard time getting water 0 Roots have dif culty penetrating 0 Lots of surface area holds nutrients well 0 Very fertile quotIt dependsquot on topography crop climate Soil Structure Refers to the way in which the soil particles and other materials like organic matter in the soil bind together into clumps aggregates Granular structure when sand silt clay and other organic matter interacts to form small aggregates Large holes in the aggregate passing through of water and gasses Small holes in the aggregate holds water Organic matter helps to build the aggregates by sticking the soil particles together Good tilth soil with granular aggregation that favors plant growth by holding water and nutrients but allows for drainage and gas exchange To improve soil structure 0 Increase soil organic matter improves and stabilizes soil aggregation o Decrease soil compaction promotes drainage moisture retention gas exchange Soil Organic Matter Refers to carbonbased material in the soil that was originally a living organism Decomposes the former living material and transforms it into humus Humus o Sticky and helps bind particles into aggregates 0 Can absorb and hold up to 6x its weight in water 0 Releases nitrogen and other nutrients for plant 0 Holds nutrients in the soil through electrochemical charge organic matter is negatively charged so it holds positively charged cations Organic matter is added in many forms 000 O Compost not effective as nutrient source Raw Organic Matter more nutrients Green Manure holds moisture well Incorporating crop residue 0 Organic Crop Production 0 O O USDA has developed an organic production system that contains many regulations and laws that needs to be met in order to consider a crop yield quotorganicquot GMO genetically modi ed organism contain one or more genes denied from the organism Tillage as weed control strategy harms soil structure Containers and Raised Beds 0 Use soilless mix 0 Good for urban areas 0 Salad tables hydroponic salad table Don39s Original Question 0 Fertilizer39s analysis set of three numbers that represents the percent of Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium NPK N is key element in protein P are energytransforming molecules K helps move nutrients in and out of cells Lecture 20 Photosynthesis Photoautotrophs Defn uses energy from light to produce organic molecules with which they build their cells and store energy Plants are autotrophs selfnourishing Organic molecules that a plant produces must be 0 Storable win the plant 0 Capable of being broken back down by the plant to yield energy for use in growth maintenance and producing other required organic molecules 0 Reasonably compact so that enough energy can be stored for growth 0 Transportable win the plant 0 Stable and nontoxic to the plant Photosynthesis the process on which photoautotrophs rely to capture that light energy and to produce carbon based organic molecules 0 Fixes to secure carbon Removal of carbon dioxide from atmosphere by planting trees is one method of carbon sequestrian Two light reactions that make up photosynthesis Light Reaction and Light Independent Reaction Characteristics of Light 0 Light travels in waves 0 Wavelength differs for different colors of light 0 Longest visible wavelength is red invisible is infrared radiation and radio waves 0 Shortest visible wavelength is blue invisible is UV light and microwaves 0 Light as a particulate nature and the particles are called photons Photons provide energy that drives photosynthesis Equation for photosynthesis 0 Water carbon dioxide gt oxygen water and simple sugars Light Reaction Uses Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b Low absorbancelight re ecting back Carotenoids accessory pigments assist chlorophyll in light capture and energy transfer and contribute to the regulation and moderation of excessive excitation of pigment molecules during intense sunlight Chloroplasts double membrane 0 lnteriorstroma 0 Within stroma are coinlike thylakoids that is surrounded thylakoid membrane 0 Stacks of thylakoids are called grana 0 Green chlorophyll is embedded in thylakoid membrane and arranged in a structure called the antenna complex it captures and routes the energy from the sunlight down to a collector quotreaction centerquot The process of one pigment capturing the photon39s energy and passing that energy on to adjacent molecules is important in photosynthesis Light Independent Reaction Takes place in stroma of the chloroplast Two compounds NADPH and ATP carry the energy from light that was originally transformed into hydrogen ions and electrons through the splitting of water Then enters the Calvin Cycle where energy is used to x carbon to its G3P triose phosphate and requires help of protein called Rubisco Triose phosphate produces 6 carbon molecules glucose and fructose Cellulose and Starch Source regions of photosynthesis and sugar production Leaves are the typical source Sinks regions that don39t support photosynthesis but still need the nutrients from it Translocation movement of sucrose through the phloem to the sink that provides cells with a source of stored energy and also building blocks for organic molecules Two useful compounds result from the production of long glucose chains 0 Starch key energy storage compound in plant cells 0 Cellulose main constituent of the cell wall and key to a plant39s structural integrity Cellulose has a different type of bond that makes it indigestible for humans To Review Again In the light reaction pigments in the thylakoid membrane capture energy from sunlight The energy is used to split water which releases oxygen into the atmosphere The energy used to split the water is transferred into electrons and hydrogen atoms and eventually into ATP and NADPH In the light independent reaction the ATP and NADPH power the Calvin Cycle that captures carbon from atmosphere carbon dioxide and incorporates it into simple sugar molecules These simple sugars can be translocated to sinks where they are used for energy converted into energy storage compounds or converted into structural molecules