PSYCH 306 chapter 15
PSYCH 306 chapter 15 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
Chapter 15 Sexual Victimization Rape Coercion Harassment and Abuse of Children Sexual Assault 393 Stranger Rape rape committed by someone who is not known by the victim oz Sexual assault unwanted or nonconsensual sexual contact that occurs as a result of force or the threatened use of force as a result of coercion or when the person is unable to consent or resist asleep drunk under age unconscious Rape oz Rape Nonconsensual oral anal or vaginal penetration obtain by force by threat of bodily harm or when the victim is incapable of giving consent Rape has recently declined Some states are more rape prone Alaska Colorado Arkansas Michigan and South Dakota Crime data victimization surveys are used to tract rape counts Woman are more likely to report a rape If they are raped by a stranger 0 Types of Rape O O O Acquaintance Rape a rape committed by someone who is know by the victim Date Rape a type of acquaintance rape that is committed during a date or social encounter agreed to by the victim Very few acquaintance rape are reported Victims blame themselves Sexual coercion the act of forcing another person into unwanted sexual activity by physical or verbal coercion pressure drugs alcohol manipulation Token resistance to sex saying no to sex when one means yes Compliance agreeing to sexual intercourse when you do not really want to engage in it Marital Rape nonconsensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim s spouse Battering rape anger rape forceonly rape power rape obsessive rape sadistic rape Gang rape rape in which a victim is assaulted by more than one attacker Statutory Rape sexual intercourse by an adult with a consenting partner who is not yet the legal age of conset Legal age ranges from 1618 Mentally handicapped are often protected under this 0 SameSex Rape and Coercion 0 Woman can be assaulted by woman and vice versa for men O O O 0 Male rape rape in which the victim is a male Bisexual and homosexuals are victims of sexual assault more than heterosexuals Men can be raped by women Anyone can be raped and victims are not to blame 3 Some Characteristics of Rapists O 0000 0 Most convicted rapists are young men of lower socioeconomic status Oversexed or sexually deprived Regular access to sex partners More sexually aroused by rape stimuli Emotionally sexually and physically abused as a child and neglected by their caregivers Distorted attitudes and beliefs about sex roles and female behaviors strong acceptance of rape myths acceptance of violence towards women and denial of personal responsibility for their own actions 0 Explanations of Rape O Psychodynamic Theories A character disorder that is very resistant to change Power rapists rapists who commit their attacks in order to overcome personal feelings of insecurity and inadequacy Their rapes give them a sense of mastery and control Opportunistic rapist rapist motivated by desire for sex who rape impulsively when there is an opportunity Anger rapists rapists who commit their attacks out of hostility or anger directed at their victims or at women in general Sadistic rapists rapist who are aroused by physical force and who derive pleasure by harming their victims 0 Feminist Theories Rape is common is societies that glorify men dominance and violence regard women as inferior War rape rape that is committed by solders combatants or civilians during times of war armed con ict or military occupation Used to displace and terrorize a targeted community 0 SocialCognitive Theories Rapists have disputed schemas about what women believe and desire View women as sexual objects Abused themselves as child witnessed abuse in family Rapist interpret rejection as seduction and positive cues o Evolutionary Theories Ancestral men who actively pursued sexual opportunities and had sex with many partners had higher reproductive success than men who did not This does not justify why men rape older womenchildren 0 Comprehensive Theories Multiple paths to sexual aggression motivated by both sex and power to different degrees 3 Rape Myths 0 Widespread mistaken beliefs about rape 0 Myth 1 Women who are raped usually provoked the attack by their dress and behavior 0 Myth 2 and 3 women subconsciously want to be raped no woman can be raped if she truly does not want too be 0 Myth4 women frequently make false accusations of rape 3 Reactions to Rape o By the Victim Postrape posttraumatic stress disorder a group of clinical symptoms displayed by man victims of rape previously called rape trauma syndrome it includes an acute phase involving initial physical and psychological recovery from the attack and longterm psychological reorganization involving attempts to deal with the long term effects of the attack and to prevent a future rape Many lose their desire for sex Find it difficult to trust others Being to engage in highrisk behaviors Some suppress their feelings o By Signi cant Others Emotional support Don t blame victim 09 What happens when rape is reported 0 Rape victim advocate programs Investigation victim is taken to hospital for medical exam 0 Preventing Rape o Prevent rapists from feeling like they will get away with it o Decrease chance of a potential victim 0 Changing the social perspective of rape Sexual Harassment oz Each year 2300030000 people led sexual harassment charges 393 Behavior is considered harassment when is persists after the recipient has indicated that it is unwanted oz Verbal or written behavior about persons clothing appearance or body oz Sex based jokes 0 Visual imagery Nonverbal behavioral facial expressions Some Causes of Sexual Harassment o Powerbased 0 Common in bluecollar occupations in which women are underrepresented 0 Many men interpreted initia resistance as part of the game Sexual Harassment of Students 0 Harassment in college 30 of female students are harassed by their instructor 0 Harassment in Middle and High School May occur between peers Unwelcomes sexual jokes comments or gestures Stalking and Unwanted Sexual Attention o Stalking repeated pursuit of another individual who does not want a relationship International persistent unwanted and psychotically averse to the target 0 O O O 00 00 00 00 O 9 Sexual Abuse of Children oz What is Child Sexual Abuse 0 Pubescent children 0 Anything from unwanted sexual advance or being spoken to in a sexual manner to an incidence of indecent exposure to inappropriate touching or acts of penetrating 393 Who Molests Children 0 Large majority of molestation is by a known adult 0 Preference molesters pedophiles child molesters who have primarily sexual orientation to children and who are relatively in interested in adult partners 0 Situation molesters child molesters who have a primary sexual orientation to adults They have sex with children impulsively and regard behaviors as abnormal o Pedophilia a condition in which sexual arousal is achieved primarily and repeatedly though sexual activity with children who have not reached puberty Personally immature pedophile is most common because he is attracted to children because he has never developed the social skills necessary to initiate and maintain sexual relationship with an adult Regressive pedophile engages with children who are strangers Aggressive pedophile are aroused with in icting physical injury 0 Median age for st offense is 16 o Finds positions where he has access to children teacher camp counselor scout leader 0 Online sex offenders Use for mutual sexual grati cation without direct physical contact Masturbators Stalkers Networks or swappers who exchange information without pedophiles oz Female Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse 0 Type of female sex offenders The experimenter The male accompanied molester The male coerced molester who passively participates in molest on that is orchestrated by a male Nurture or caregiver who uses those responsibilities to abuse The physically disturbed molester who ha some for of acute psychosis The teacher or lover who is typically an adult in a position of authority and who views the sex as consensual relationship between willing partners The traditional offender who molests children for sexual grati cation purposes oz Effects of Child Sexual Abuse 0 23 recover within 1218 months 0 Children blame themselves 0 Poor sexual health as adults Incest 0 Refers to sexual contact between two closely related persons 0 Polyincestuous family a family in which there are both multiple incestuous abusers and multiple victims across generations and within the same generation 3 lncest between siblings o Brotherssister sisterbrother sistersister brotherbrother 0 ParentsChild lncest 0 Greatest emotional response in people 0 Stepfathers are more likely to victimize their children than biological 3 Effects of lncest on Children 0 Victims blame themselves OOOO PTSD Poor selfimage Low selfesteem Anxiety 0 Depression 0 Eating disorderssubstance abuse 0 Sexual problems 393 Preventing and Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse 0 Educate yourself your child contact police Prosecution of Sexual Offenders oz Rapeshield laws laws that make the prosecution of rapists easier than that also prevent the victims from feeling as if the are on trial 0 Sexually violent predatory laws laws allowing for the civil commitment of convicted violent sex offenders after they have served their prison sentence if it can be show that they pose a continue threat Therapy oz Therapy does not work for rapistsmolesters unless they want to do therapy
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