HIST 150 week 12
HIST 150 week 12 HIST 150
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
HIST 150 Week 12 11/10 & 11/12 The Beginning of the Enlightenment I. Religious People a. Thomas Aquinas was a big promoter of the way of thinking that God gave us grace, and we earned more grace by having faith and doing good works. 1. He was a supporter of the body politic, where society was like a body, and the king as the head, the peasants as feet, and the Church/the Pope as the soul, which guided the head. 2. During the time of Aquinas, peasant farmers were still into good and bad witches because it was what they had always known, but caused uproar in some places in the Church. b. Martin Luther was born in Germany in Saxony to Hans Luther, who found silver under his field, so he sent Martin to the University of Wittenburg to become a lawyer. 1. Saxony is where one of the 7 electors lives who voted on who became the next Holy Roman Emperor (the ruler of the Germanys); his name was Fredrick the Wise, and he was very religious. 2. While Martin was at U of W, he nearly died, and he made a promise to St. Ann that he would become a priest if she helped him survive; she did so he does. 3. He is very upset by the sinfulness of humanity, even so that he pretty much tortures himself. 4. He saw good works as a sign of faith, but people can only be saved through faith because grace can only be earned through faith, not good works. 5. He posted 95 Theses on the church door of the Wittenburg Cathedral for students there to consider and debate (such as indulgences, where people bought their way out of purgatory and the money was used for the papal army, churches, and the poor). - It was originally posted in Latin, but someone took it, translated it to German, and it sold like crazy. - The day after the 95 Theses was posted, an indulgence salesman was supposed to come. - Fredrick the Wise agreed with Luther and protected him. - Pope Leo X sends a Cardinal to excommunicate Luther once he found out that he was a heretic. c. Erasmus was a priest who made a living from his writings. 1. He criticized relics, saying that there were way too many relics to be real (way too much wood of the true cross). 2. When he is asked to be a Cardinal, he declines. d. John Calvin was a French man who went to Genevia, Switzerland. 1. He thought that nothing could help you earn salvation, and that God had already picked out who would go to heaven and the rest would go to hell (predestination). 2. The Calvinists in Scotland were called Presbyterians (brought there by John Knox). II. Charles I was the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabelle on one side, and a Hapsburg on the other; he was elected Holy Roman Emperor at age 19 and inherited Castile, Aragon, and the Germanys. a. He spent a ton of money on making sure Protestantism didn’t spread and defeat the Ottomans (saving souls from within and from without the country, respectively), which left his son Philip II super bankrupt, but inherited Spain and the Netherlands (including Belgium and Luxembourg). 1. Antwerp was a huge trading hub in Belgium where there were more and more Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anabaptists. 2. The Spanish sent the army to Antwerp to root out the Protestants (the Inquisition), which started the 80 Years War, Protestants v. Spaniards, which was bad for business. 3. The bourse, kind of like a stock market that bought and sold trips to Asia to turn profits, moved to Amsterdam, which became the new trading city. b. Amsterdam was a wealthy Dutch Calvinist city where they learned to make porcelain, grow spices, and make textiles so that they did not have to trade from Asia. 1. The Dutch took port cities from the Portuguese in S. Africa and traded beaver pelts with the Natives in America, which result in the traders becoming richer and more powerful, especially members of the Dutch East India Trading Company. 2. The Estates General and Stadtholder were the two main lawmakers and any landowning man who was responsible had the privilege to vote. 3. The Dutch Collegians revised the original Calvinist interpretations of religion, which caused an uproar and began the 30 Years War, where Cardinal Richelleu allowed the French Calvinists to do their own thing as long as they didn’t take up arms against France. c. The 80 Years War and the 30 Years War ended around the same time. 1. The Treaty of Westphalia ended the 30 Years War, which stated that a country couldn’t attack another when a prince/king declared the religion of their nation. 2. The Treaty of Münster ended the 80 Years War ended with Spain being forced to declare that the Netherlands was an independent country. III. Other important things a. Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza wanted to be a rabbi but was thrown out 1. He thought about God and nature and decided that God IS the very existence of nature. 2. He also debated about reason and faith and tried to come up with a reasonable explanation of things (he said that it was reasonable to be a Christian. b. The Glorious Revolution was by Mary and William of Orange (king and queen of England). 1. It ended in them signing a bill or rights that limited the monarch’s power and allowed everyone a trial. c. By the time the Dutch made it to Japan, there had already been Portuguese there trading and converting people to Catholicism. 1. The Dutch didn’t bring any missionaries with them, so there were very few converts to Calvinism. 2. The Tokugawa family (the shoguns) was a warlord family who protected the emperor who wanted to kill all the Christians and kick out all the foreigners but the Dutch.
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