Popular in American History since 1865
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindley on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Clemson University taught by Rod Andrew in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see American History since 1865 in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/17/15
11515 Voting Rights Act of 1965 High point of the civil rights movement Significant impact of AA who were able to vote After the act the movement weakened b c of several factors 1 Became more violent A week after Watts riot occurred in Los Angeles 10 days of rioting 34 were left dead property damaged Most race riots were not in the South Many groups that openly advocated violence Black Panthers some members of Nation of Islam 2 Lost white support Many were all for it when it focused on segregation and voting rights but when it called for economic opportunity enforced by the fed gov t they had a problem Also northern whites were supporters when it came to fixing the open segregation of the south but lost interest when trying to fix the subtle discrimination in the North 3 Weakened itself by taking on other issues Ex MLK started speaking out against the Vietnam War and supported labor unions Stokely Carmichael denounced Vietnam and said he hoped US would be defeated 4 Movement itself became divided Divisions between all the different groups became wider and larger Leader of SNCC Stokely Carmichael rejected nonviolent resistance One key remaining issue was school desegregation Brown said it must disintegrate with all deliberate speed In practice most local schools devised ways to keep the schools segregated In most larger towns whites were moving out to the suburbs and blacks were left in inner city so most whites went to predominantly white schools and vice versa freedom of choice The city would even provide buses to keep them separate 1966 US vs Jefferson County Board of Education Court ruled that the school districts had to do more than just allow blacks into white schools they had to take concrete steps to make sure the schools were integrated in fact not theory Translated into a policy called busing Infuriated a lot of parents destroyed the concept of neighborhood schools which disrupted routines etc Busing became the biggest domestic political issue in the nation some people said fed gov t destroyed individual choice But for a time it did work and the schools became integrated By 1968 Jim Crow was dead Social and political equality for blacks had arrived New forms of racial etiquette all the Still a lot of economic and educational equality still some racial division and mistrust At this point racial relations in the South and North weren t all that different 1960 s American became more and more involved with what is called Indochina word that referred to the region between India and China Indochina had been controlled by the French for a long time It had been divided into 3 political entities Laos Cambodia and Vietnam During WWII Iapanese had taken it over but after WWII France came back and tried to reassert its control and as they did this they were opposed by Vietnamese nationalists who didn t want to be under French control Nationalists were led by a communist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh s forces were stronger in Northern Vietnam between There was a Bitter war between French and Vietnamese communists Viet Minh Ended with a military defeat for the French with Dien Bien Phu and the French completely gave up on Vietnam and Vietnam was divided We were providing financial support for the French in part of our containment policy so we were involved at this point South Vietnam was under a proWestern gov t under Ngo Dinh Diem to which US supported problem was his gov t was very corrupt and repressive and didn t have a lot of popular supports 1960 s various rebel groups collectively called the Viet Cong started guerilla warfare against this government Why did we care Domino theory idea that if one country fell to communism it would prepare the way for the next country to fall and then the next etc We had pledged support and told them we would help them if we pulled out it would damage our credibility Kennedy sent a lot of military and political advisors Shortly before his death he gave silent approval for a cue for South Vietnam offers to overthrow Diem and South Vietnam was on the verge of collapse Iohnson decided US must directly involve itself to fight the communists August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident allegedly North Vietnam torpedo boats attacked two American ships Gave Johnson the excuse he needed and he was able to get Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave the President authority to use any force necessary to prevent communist aggression against the US in Vietnam Worded very oddly so in effect it was a black checkquot allowing the President to do whatever he saw necessary President Johnson used this authority to increase the US role in Vietnam we started bombing certain targets in Feb 1965 landed several hundred marines in South Vietnam in April 1965 and by July we had 50000 ground troops Between 1965 and 1968 there was a steady intensification of this war by 1968 we had now had 500000 troops Very difficult and frustrating difficult to figure out who the enemy was There was a strategic debate about how we should fight this war Some thought the key was providing security for the villages and winning them over pacification strategy counter insurgency Something they would do is take a USMC squad and combine it with two Vietnamese squads and they would form a Combined Action Program CAP Establish ties with the locals make their local militia stronger so they could eventually fight for themselves Generally not the strategy that was followed William Westmoreland generally favored conventional warfare war of attrition Using our superior war power conventional tactics etc and just kill as many as we can until they can t fight anymore Most of the public supported the war they believed the gov t when they said the communist forced were on the verge of collapse Then in late January 1968 Communists launched an all out offensive Tet Offensive Attacked all the major cities in South Vietnam and struck basically everywhere Huge surprise to us even attacked the US embassy Khe Sanh took over the city of Hue very important city etc This was the turning point the media and the public were shocked started saying if victory was right around the cornerquot then how did this happen public lost faith in gov t and military After Tet offensive though we basically kicked their butts all through South Vietnam militarily Tet offensive was a victory for us but it was a political defeat for us because the American public lost faith in the war Continuation of the war and Tet offensive crippled the presidency of Lyndon Johnson Democrats were in chaos 1968 Democratic convention giving Republicans a good chance to win Republicans chose Richard Nixon 1968 election pledged to bring the country back together and cut back on social programs There was also a 3rd party candidate George Wallace who got a lot of popularity out of opposing busing End result was a narrow victory for Nixon he was a safe choicequot From the start Nixon and his Secretary of State Henry Kissinger were determined to get US out of Vietnam but in a honorable basis that won t discredit the US too severely Three approaches to getting the US out 1 Vietnamization idea that we d replace US troops with South Vietnamese forces by training them to defend themselves and by 1972 we only had 24000 troops in Vietnam This is when you see serious morale problems for the troops they see the gov t doesn t really care and doesn t want to win Drug problems refusing to fight obey orders fragging armed assault on a superior etc 2 Drastic increase in bombing both in North Vietnam and secretly along Ho Chi Minh trail this increase was supposed to assist the 3rd approach 3 Negotiations led to the Paris Peace Accords Ian 1973 4 provisions of the Paris Peace Accords 1 2 3 4 Withdrawal of US troops within 60 days All POWs would be returned within 60 days Ceasefire no more fighting Future elections for the South Vietnamese gov t Spring 1965 North Vietnam violated the Paris Peace Accords and launched all out invasion of South Vietnam and in April the capital of South Vietnam was captured Lessons of Vietnamquot 1 2 Democracies can t wage war successfully without popular support Wars are lost not by the side that loses the most men but by the side that gives up first Integrity of national leaders and public trust in them in vital to prosecuting a war If we intervene we should do it with overwhelming force and then get out quickly Vietnam War also brought a loss of innocence Went into this war with the belief in our own righteousness our goodness and our ability to win My Lai massacre
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