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november 12

by: Lindley

november 12 History 1020

American History since 1865
Rod Andrew

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American History since 1865
Rod Andrew
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindley on Tuesday November 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Clemson University taught by Rod Andrew in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see American History since 1865 in History at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 11/17/15
1112 1970 s Loss of moralsocial unity in the confidence Watergate but at least it showed the Constitution prevailed Nixon was succeeded by Ford Upset a lot of people when he issued a pardon for Nixon Key events that hurt national morale and confidence in the 1970 s Watergate lost trust in our politicians Stagnant economy Steel industry was failing lots of factories closed and lots of unemployed quotRust Belt Energy crisis quotArab oil embargo 1973 Egypt and Syria launched a surprise invasion of Israel and we supplied weapons to Israel and oil producing countries of Middle East responded by cutting their oil production by 25 Skyrocketed gas prices rationing of gas In 1974 the Arab countries influenced OPEC to raise all oil prices by 400 and we realized how much American economic growth relied on cheap energy sources which we no longer controlled By mid1970 s we were in the worst economic situation since the Depression Defeat in Vietnam Last personnel was evacuated in April 1975 First time US had ever lost a war Other foreign policy humiliations Jimmy Carter defeated Ford during Carter administration there were lots of humiliation Soviets succeeded in launching communist uprisings Soviets invaded Afghanistan Carter responded by saying US was to boycott the Olympics in Moscow Most damaging was the Iran Hostage Crisis For many years Iran was ruled by Shah who had US support but many Iranian hated the Shah bc it allowed Western influence into the country In October 1979 Shah was overthrown by revolutionaries led by the Ayatollah Khomeini On November 4th these Iran fundamentalists held American diplomats hostage demanding that US return the Shah and all of his money Launched rescue attempt called Desert One mission and it was a complete disaster Lasted for 444 days Ronald Reagan was trying to defeat Carter in his bid for reelection and this national humiliation really hurt Carter Continued racial tension and frustration for African Americans Civil Rights Movement started losing effectiveness For a time looked like Nixon was trying to turn time back But later Nixon administration kind of reversed itself on the issue It was under the Nixon admin that federal officials and judges began interpreted a clause in the Civil Rights Act in a pattern or a policy that became known as affirmative action involved setting goals or quotas for the of womenminorities who were admitted to college labor unions hired by local policefire department Became controversial called it quotreverse discrimination which was very discouraging bc for a moment there seemed to be a national consensus on what was right but now that consensus on issues for voting and affirmative action was gone symbolized by the argument of affirmative action Social changes in the 1970 s Resurgence of feminism in the late 60 s and the 1970 s By the 1960 s almost 12 of adult women were employed and about a third of marriage were ending in divorce A lot of familiessingle women were dependent on income from women s employment but often women were paid less for the same job Feminists pushed for quotequal pay for equal work and most men made it hard to oppose that idea The more radical feminists went further and preached that women had been enslaved by men throughout history pregnant bras protested Miss America Formed a group called the National Organization for Women NOW who called for a new amendment to the Constitution called the Equal Rights Amendment ERA which was supposed to guarantee equal rights for women Gay rights movement Sexual revolution broad challenge against traditional sexual morals starting in the 1960 s For most it made people freer to engage in premarital or even extramarital sex More unwed mothers greater levels of marital infidelitydivorce greater acceptance of pornography changes in acceptable dress codes Legalization of abortion Took place w Roe v Wade 1973 which says that most state antiabortion laws violated a constitutional right to privacy that was in the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment Supreme Court said the mother may abort her pregnancy for any reason up to the time that the fetus would be viable outside of the womb 2428 weeks and after that she could only abort if it was necessary to protect her health By the late 1970 s a lot of Americans especially conservatives and modernists were really disturbed of the moral decline Ronald Reagan 1980 Originally from IL radio personalityactor conservative tremendous charismaexuded optimism about American becoming great again called the quotGreat Communicator Came to believe the gov t especially the federal gov t had become a burden to the people and was stifling individual initiative Also believed the US was the world s best hope for peace and democracy it must take a firmer stand against Communist around the world When he took office in 1981 unemployment was at 74 and spiked to 10 shortly inflation was in the teens interest rates were at 21 pretax income was dropping while tax rates were increasing Proposed quotsupplyside economics theory that you could cut taxes on corporations and individuals while also cutting gov t spending Cutting taxes would free them to invest their income instead of paying it to the gov t resulting in new companies and the expansion of old ones which would result in more jobs and ultimately higher wagesincome for everyone More S to spend on consumer goods which would have the same effect Relax the burden on that part of the economy which can provide investment and spending and it would help everyone Also tax revenues would increase bc everyone was making more decreasing the federal deficit Critics called this theory quotReaganomicsquot quotvoodoo economics or quottrickle down economics claiming it would only aid the rich and only a small portion would trickle down to the poor In foreign policy Reagan wanted to take a firmer stand against the Russians opposing Communist expansion increase defense spending Many people felt the previous Presidents were too easy on the Soviets and they were cheating us military morale was very low at the time His solution was to increase defense spending and match the Soviets dollar for dollar missile for missile tank for tank and ultimately the Soviet system would not be able to keep up Either they d have to accept their role as a distant 2 or their system would collapse from the economic strain In 1981 Reagan succeeded in getting Congress to lower taxes w the Economic Recovery Tax Act Personal income taxes were cut by 25 Unfortunately the budget deficit only got worse bc of a recession in 1982 but in 1983 the economy rebounded and that expansion would continue on for basically another 25 years Democrats claimed the rich got richer over Reagan the income gap got wider this is true rich did get richer but so did the poor Related to this Democrats claimed that black families did worse under Reagan not really true either At first Reagan seemed to be using a confrontational approach w foreign approach called the Soviets an quotevil empire came out and bluntly said the Cold War was a struggle bw quotright and wrong good and evil Determined to stop communist aggression wherever it occurred quotfreedom fighters Beirut bombing Grenada a Cuban insurgency had taken it over w 1000 Americans so Reagan launched surprise attack on island A communist power had taken over Nicaragua and was also trying to undermine the gov t next to it in El Salvador Reagan sent aidadvisors to their gov t which helped prevent a communist takeover but the gov t was guilty of many human rights abuses which lead to a fear that we were getting into another Vietnam Also got CIA to secretly send aid to antiCommunist forces in Nicaragua Contras communist rulers were called Sandinistas Congress found out and the Democrats got the Boland Amendment passed prevented us from using funds to aid the Contras either directly or indirectly which Reagan thought this was inexcusable bc we were helping fight Communism This led to a huge scandal called IranContra Affair Iranian backed terrorists seized hostages in Lebanon Reagan made it clear to two successive national security advisors that he wanted out hostages homethat he wanted to find a way to aid the Contras CIA made a deal w the Iranians to sell them weapons in exchange for the release of American hostages and the money from these weapons was given to the Contras negotiated w terrorists and violated Boland Amendment No hard evidence that Reagan knew of a violation to the Boland Amendment and most of public just overlooked Libya bombing 1986 Libya was responsible for a bombing in West Berlin killing an American soldier and the leader Muammar Qaddafi a known terrorist and US bombed his house Challenged Soviets in arms race Approved program called SDI Strategic Defense Initiative quotStar Wars Was going to be an outerspace field of lasers that would shoot down any approaching Soviet missiles to make US impervious to any nuclear missile attack Americans were terrified we were in another arms race and Soviets said it was a provocative act


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