PY 370 Chapter 3 Notes
PY 370 Chapter 3 Notes PY 370
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Chapter 3 Contributions of early scientists 1 Descartes and Dualism a Descartes where is the seat of the mind Not the brain but the heart b Where is the brain and what role does it play i Believed body and mind were separate ii The mind is separate from body but the mind can control the body 2 Contributions to scientists studying the nervous system a Michelangelo depicted the brain accurately b Decapitations decapitated heads smiledwink found to be re ex not through own will c Veterans of War brain injuries can you localize the injured part of the brain d Animals subjected to dissections the legs of decapitated animals continued to move 3 Spinal Cord a Magendie dorsal and ventral roots of spinal cord dissected animals with no anesthesia puppies did not experience pain found that when injury was to dorsal there was lack of sensation but when it was to ventral there was lack of movement Bell c Whytt spinal cord amp frog legs if you decapitated frog left spinal cord the legs would still move BUT when he decapitated the frog took out spinal cord nothing would happen 4 Helmholtz a Visual System three nerve fibers each sensitive to different wavelengths Based off Young Light of different wavelengths that conformed to red blue and green Found if you mix all wavelengths you can create any color within the color system Color Vision c Important because it laid down groundwork for perception 5 Muscles Nerves and electricity a Importance of Galvani and Du Bois Reymond s work b Du BoisReymond 9wanted to show that his own body had electricity blistered his arm and soaked in saline solutionconnected wire to arm and demonstrated that electricity was traveling through his arm c Electricity generated by the brain and distributed throughout the body through the nervous system argued that these impulses is what cause the limbs to move d Galvani 9 Attached wire to lab roof and to frog s leg 6 Helmholtz and the neural impulse a Myograph b Short delay between stimulation of neural impulse and movement c Sadly he couldn t explain his work in a way that people could understand 7 Phrenology a Franz Joseph Gall father of Phrenology localize different areas in the brain with behaviors facial configurations had certain personality traits i Eyes protrude had better memories ii Feel bumps in skull to see personality b Iohann Spurzheim put on shows to convince this was a science and could use this to predict whom you are interacting with Before people get marriedmatch maker c Comb s idealism not as materialistic as Spurzheim did not take advantage wanted people to benefit d Money and Science 8 Phrenology Makes money a Fowler and Wells making money took advantage of it b Failure of Phrenology cannot be supported by science and was a hoax took advantage of people 9 Flourens a Ablation remove part of the brain w animals dissect part of the brain and see how it behaved if removed and acts certain way then that is an indication that that part of the brain is responsible for a certain act i Which parts of brain is responsible for certain behaviors b Action Proper each part of the brain is responsible for different functions c Action Commune different functions for each component of the brain the brain works together as a unit 10 Localization of function a Importance of frontal loves i Phineas Gage railroad worker looked away and a rod ended up inside his frontal lobe Able to talk IQ stayed the same but personality changed happy stablebut after he couldn t keep a job disruptive and didn t care ii Iohn Harlow Gage s doctor felt the accident affected the frontal lobe and that area of brain maintained the function of selfcontrol judgment etc b Language and the localization of Speech i Broca Had a patient who had damage to his left frontal lobe debating if speech was localized Broca believed frontal lobes do control speech found that it was the LEFT frontal lobe that controlled speech ii Wernike found that brain damage in the left temporal lobe can speak but could not comprehend c Direct Stimulation of the Brain i Fritsch and Hitzig were able to identify the primary motor cortex through brain stimulation ii Hitzig was tending to soldiers in the war one solider with brain exposed and he stimulated ithis limbs started to move The brain is responsible for movement iii Talked to Fritsch they began to conduct experiments with animals By stimulating portion of the cortex they would see the dogs move Only the rear portion of cortex 11 John Hughlings Iackson amp David Ferrier a John Hughlings Iackson s wife had epilepsy b Iohn Hughlings Iackson compared brain to the government c David Ferrier follows up on Fritsch and Hitzig s work i Primary motor cortex expanded Fritsch and Hitzig work used electrolytes Mapping portions of motor cortex 12 Bartholow a Mary Rafferty was feeble minded couldn t give consent b Agreed to brain stimulation drill holes in brain c Bartholow drilled holes in the brain i Inserted needles in the brain 1 Pt complained of pain when ulcer touched 2 When inserted in the Dura mater answered questions reported no pain 3 Noted contractions when stimulating posterior lobes and pt complained 4 Despite her distress he increased the strength of the electrical stimulation 5 She ended up frothing at the mouth and eventually died 6 People were outraged 12 Aubrey Mussen invented the first stereotaxic instrument for the human brain 13Penfield performed surgeries on individuals with epilepsy 14Michael Victor Pachon and Valentin Delmas Marsalet found a cortical area for reward the caudate nucleus 15Golgi and Cajal a Staining brain was stained and neurons dendrites were outlined able to look at brain and locate neurons b Neurons brain was a network neural impulses travel through brain network c Synapses d Nobel prize 16 Karl Spencer Lashley a Engram b Equipotentiality thinking that if you damage one part of the brain another part of the brain would take over their function c Concluded was that multiple parts of the brain work together for memory and retention d Couldn t identify any one location responsible for memory and retention