March 15 notes
March 15 notes Hist 387 003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by BrookeJ on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 387 003 at George Mason University taught by Lebovic in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see US & World Power in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
March 15 Class Outline The Cold War In Asia 1. The two axes of the Cold War a. The Marshall Plan It was a $13 billion program that rebuilt wardevastated Western Europe between 1948 and 1952. This plan helped integrate that key region into a U.S. –controlled alliance against the Soviets. Its roots go back to WWII. (It was a grant program.) The U.S. will then give financial aid to Europe. The main motivation was to keep the global economy good. There starts to be spikes in Communist membership in France. US proposes a lot of aid. The U.S. offers the Soviet Union a lot of money. They thought that the Soviets would say no. Soviets were concerned about accepting US aid, because they didn't want to have to open up their economy. Also, there could be political strings attached. In 1948, there will be the collapse of the Czech economy. There is one major flaw was they wanted to reconstruct the European economies. 2. Decolonization a. The rapid end of empire **Issues dealt with decolonization and reparations for Europe. It had been the organizing principle of world. This would soon change. All European colonies would be pushed out of the pacific. b. American strategy and the problem of decolonization Phenomenons: Struggle between nationalist movements and former colonial powers Struggle between rural insurgent movement (people wanting land redistribution) and centralizing economic forces interested in trade. British had been dependent on Malaysia for rubber and oil. 1946: US grants independence to Philippines. US only wants self determination as long as the nations aren't communist and U.S. can put themselves in their markets. Role of other nations: exporting. Indonesia: Stop communist forces there and get Dutch to offer this country independence. This strategy didn't work in Malaysia. c. Vietnam Vietnam’s Declaration of Independence: Eisenhower press conference: 3. The “Loss” of China (1949) 1949) Truman and Acheson had long known that China was lost (502). Chiang Kaishek’s (Jiang Jieshi’s) Nationalist (KMT) government “was one of the most corrupt and inefficient that ever made an attempt to govern a country (502).” ● The U.S. was shocked by the conquest of China by Communist forces and first Soviet atomic bomb. (502) ● U.S. president Truman didn't trust the communist. (503) ● But U.S. was still open to the possibility of recognizing Mao’s new government. They were also open to friendly relations. ● This changed in November 1948 and the Chinese arrested and put on public trail the U.S. consul, Angus Ward, for alleged espionage activities. ● By February 1950, Mao traveled to Moscow and signed an alliance with Stalin. Chang's government falls and Mao establishes himself as head of China. The implication of "loss" is that the U.S. feels like they once had them. The rise of communism in China leads US to suspect that Soviet Union was behind it. There is an articulation of domino theory and they were worried about losing resources in IndoChina. Chang takes his movement to Taiwan to stand up to the Chinese. The real fear is that Communism is that more powerful and U.S. feels they will lose credibility as a superpower. The U.S. will insist that Chang's gov't in Taiwan is the real China, and they won't acknowledge communist China. China falls and it changes the calculus in Korea. Korea automatically becomes independent due to fall of Japan. 4. NSC68 (1950) ● The U.S. looked at NSC68 as the paper that governs American policy. (504) ● It gave US a plan for fighting the Cold War in years to come. ● It was written due to Acheson’s painful realization that the Cold War had entered a new stage. Fresh tactics had to be found to fight the Soviets. ● This doc assumed that power would only be contested between US and Soviet Union. (505) ● It assumed that Soviet’s top priority was establishing “absolute power” over their homeland and Eastern Europe. ● “Conflict” with the two superpowers was “endemic.” ● The “inescapably militant” dictatorship could nevertheless be checked. ● Massive spending, unheard of in peacetime, could actually help the U.S. economy, because that economy was slowing and might face a depression unless it was spurred on by much larger military budgets. (506) Stalin works to establish a communist gov't in North Korea, while U.S. works to establish a democratic gov't in South Korea. Two things will change: China will fall. Then US Secretary of State makes a speech about countries they'll protect and it doesn't mention Korea. In June 1950, North Korea moves into South Korea and this kicks off the Korean War. +I'm not clear about which country moves into South Korea. This is a document that was produced to established US foreign policy for next decade. (I'm not really understanding the document at all.) The document addresses the grievances that the east and west have. Different US objectives for foreign policy: Contain soviets, produce freedom throughout the world. There is an idea that U.S. must conduct themselves as leaders of the world. This will inspire political changes back in the U.S. 5. The Korean War (511514) 6. Cold War institutions There was no direct fighting between US and Soviet Union. There was a theory of containment. It changed to countering and overthrowing the Soviets. a. National Security Act 1947: (483) This act greatly enlarged and enhanced presidential power. It also created the Central Intelligence Agency (the CIA). It even established the National Security Council (NSC). Forms a defense department b. The Establishment This is a group in foreign policy. John Foster Dulles. This is the best and the brightest group. c. The Red Scare There was a purge of suspected communists in U.S. d. Defense spending This will increase after falling during World War II.
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