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Geology Notes 3.31

by: Carter Cox

Geology Notes 3.31 GEO 101

Carter Cox

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Dynamic Earth
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carter Cox on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Geology 3/31/16 Principle of Fossil Succession ­ Fossils are found in limited strata ­ Found in a definable order (amphibians, mammals, etc.) ­ Don’t reappear How we use fossil ­ Index fossils­ Trilobites  o Well dated  o Widespread o Short lived Do rock layers stay put once they are deposited?  ­ No o Earthquakes o Volcanoes  o Erosion o Weathering  o Deformation Unconformities ­ Abrupt transitions in a stratigraphic column o Missing time  Non deposition  Erosion Types of Unconformities ­ Angular o Squished or turned ­ Non conformity (oldest to youngest) o Sedimentary rocks o Erosion o Non sedimentary rocks ­ Disconformity­ disc doesn’t rock  o Sedimentary rocks placed down o Erosion happens, rocks washed away o Sedimentary rocks  Correlation­ way in which all info become useful ­  Geological Column ­ Represents entire Earth history Numerical Age Dating ­ Radioactivity can act as a clock  Decay and Half Life ­ Unstable atoms eject particles predictably  ­ Become more stable atom (14C – 14 N) ­ Parent isotope ­ Daughter Isotope  Half Life ­ Time it takes for half of the population to decay o Cannot predict when single atom will decay  What can you date with this? ­ Radioactive isotopes only ­ With useful half lives ­ Particular, unweather minerals Can we date igneous rocks? ­ Yes  Can we date a sedimentary rock? ­ No o It is made of grains older than itself Can we date a metamorphic rock? ­ Sometimes o Depends on temperature and mineral type What do we Date? ­ Volcanic ash­ tons of it  ­ Certain minerals ­ Carbon ­ Coral ­ Many more Other dating techniques ­ Growth rings o Dendrochronology o Shells/ coral ­ Seasonal layers o varves o Ice\ How do you determine Earth History ­ relative age dating ­ numerical age dating ­ fossils The age of the Earth ­ Based on meteorites and moon rocks ­ Oldest Earth mineral slightly younger ­   australian Zone ­ The earth is about 4.55­ 4.6 billion years old  Earth History ­ Big one time events Lecture Outline ­ Time period o Paleogeography  Landmasses/ changes in them  Atmosphere/ climate o Life  PLANTS  ANIMALS Hadean Eon ­ 4.55 Ga formation of Earth ­ 4.5 Ga­ differentiation o Dense materials sink ­ 4.5 Ga­ formation of moon ­ Before 4.4 Ga o Molten tock surface o Non­ oxygen atmosphere o No water ­ After 4.4 Ga (Australian zircon) o Maybe solid rock o Non­ oxygen atmosphere o Some water ­ 4 Ga­ Meteor o destroyed existing surface o surface reformed  small volcanic islands ­ End of Hadean Eon o No life  o Very little land o Acidic ocean not made out of water  Archean  ­ Paleogeography o 80% of continental area  ­ Seas and Atmosphere  o Liquid water to create seas o Not much oxygen in atmosphere  ­ Frist Life o Earliest fossil  3.5 Ga  Single cell o Carbon isotopes o Stromatolites  Algae mats o Photosynthesis (creates oxygen)  2.95 Ga o Helped increase oxygen 


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