New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Russ 280 Class 21 Notes

by: Madeline Lacman

Russ 280 Class 21 Notes Russ 280

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Russian > Russ 280 > Russ 280 Class 21 Notes
Madeline Lacman

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the bolshevik revolution and Stalin's takeover.
Intro to Russian Civilization
Prof. Kalb
Class Notes
russ 280, russian, russian lit, Literature, Stalin, bolshevik, revolution, Russia
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Russian Civilization

Popular in Russian

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Lacman on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.


Reviews for Russ 280 Class 21 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/31/16
Russ 280 Class 21 Soviet Film  Late 1918: Soviet government nationalizes film making industry  Theaters appropriated by state for its use o Cinema meant as education rather than art  Many filmmakers had emigrated from Russia o Film industry a disaster  1924: government monopoly on films made in Russia o Government film company Sovkino established  Bolsheviks used film as new instrument of propaganda o Source of income o Way to contribute to prestige of Soviet art and therefore Soviet state o Way to reach mainly illiterate workers and peasants  Filmmakers enlisted by state to help create new society o Still room for experimentation  Before Stalin takes over in late 1927  Mid- 1920s golden age of experimental Soviet film Sergei Eisenstein, 1898-1948  Great soviet filmmaker of 1920s: innovative, hugely influential director and film theorist  “The Battleship Potemkin” 1925: Odessa Steps scene o Brutal massacre of civilians  “October”, 1928: Storming of the Winter Palace scene o Part of 10-year anniversary of Bolshevik takeover Civil War and the Establishment of the Soviet Union  Beginning summer 1918 Civil War  Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) fighting Reds (pro-Bolsheviks) War Communism  During civil war, Bolsheviks institute the policy of war communism o Make all sacrifices in order to create new socialist future  Creation of state economy o Take over industry o Requisitions of peasant grain o Badly trained bureaucrats, resentment  At the same time, mass famine (drop in peasant output), big drought, misery, death, starvation  Economy was a disaster From War Communism to NEP  Lenin realizes to maintain control he has to make changes o Stops war communism o Establishes new policy called NEP  New Economic Policy  NEP permits capitalistic, private enterprises once again  Peasants could sell extra grain  Private factories were okay, though state kept big industries  Many delighted by lessening of privations, others see NEP as betrayal of socialist cause Meanwhile: the Rise of “Proletarian” literature in Soviet State  Goal: literature of newly emancipated proletariat to replace literature of previous world/generation  How to get there?  Use older generation to teach new basic, necessary skills/tools  New proletarian literature would spring forth with change in social structures Power Struggles in Soviet Literature of the 1920s  Literature assigned a political role  RAPP  Russian Association of Proletarian Writers  Sought proletarian hegemony over all Soviet literature  No tolerance for any others of the numerous literary groups at the time  Rejected the “Fellow Travelers”  Writers who were not Bolsheviks and not Communist Party members but accepted the new regime  1925 resolution “On the Policy of the Party in the Area of Belles Lettres”  Recognized crucial proletarian lit but also called for tolerance of Fellow Travelers  1932 Central Committee dissolves RAPP and other literary groups Fellow Travelers and Satire: Ilf & Petrov, Zoshchenko  Satire: a way of using humor to show that something is foolish, weak, bad, etc  Ilf & Petrov o The 12 Chairs, 1928  Takes place in 1927  Vorobyaninov  From gentry family, learns family jewels in 12 chairs  Joins with con man Ostap Bender to find them  Bender o Old Russia, stealing from people, for himself  Satire of characters and all they meet  Zoshchenko o Most popular writer in Russia in 1920s o “Crime and Punishment”, 1933  Expresses total disorientation of early Soviet period  Satire of new ruling class, of regime and its rhetoric, of Soviet life, but also of characters  Tone of his work makes it hard to know where he stands  Who exactly is being mocked? Rise of Stalin  Born 1879  Ruled in Soviet Union from December of 1927 until he died in 1953  Gained power after Lenin died in 1924 o Left: Trotsky  Without world revolution, socialism in Russia is doomed o Right: Bukharin  Continue compromising with NEP o Center: Stalin  Socialism in 1 country  15 All-Union Congress of the Communist Party th o December 27 , 1927 o Condemned all deviation from the Party line as defined by Stalin Major Policies:  Collectivization of Agriculture o Began 1928 o Determined attempt to put agricultural production, including all farms and farmers, into huge state-owned collective farms o 5 million rural households disappeared  Industrialization, 5-Year Plans o First 5 year plan began 1928  Determined effort to industrialize Russia  Huge results  USSR 5 country in world in industrial production when plan began  By the end, second only to the US  Effective way to industrialize a backward country, but with huge price paid  Forced labor system for millions starting in early 1930s  Forced labor used on huge construction projects, like canals, also lumber and gold industries  Purges o Began in 1934 after assassination of Leningrad party boss Kirov o Peaked in 1936-1938: the Great Terror  Guy in charge of Secret Police went a little crazy  Yezhov o Millions of innocent people arrested, falsely accused, tortured, sent to GULAG camps, killed  Starts within communist party, then spreads to the military  Spreads to civil service or government workers  Spreads to civilians o Many rehabilitated after Stalin’s death or after end of Soviet state


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.