Russ 280 Class 21 Notes
Russ 280 Class 21 Notes Russ 280
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Lacman on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Russ 280 Class 21 Soviet Film Late 1918: Soviet government nationalizes film making industry Theaters appropriated by state for its use o Cinema meant as education rather than art Many filmmakers had emigrated from Russia o Film industry a disaster 1924: government monopoly on films made in Russia o Government film company Sovkino established Bolsheviks used film as new instrument of propaganda o Source of income o Way to contribute to prestige of Soviet art and therefore Soviet state o Way to reach mainly illiterate workers and peasants Filmmakers enlisted by state to help create new society o Still room for experimentation Before Stalin takes over in late 1927 Mid- 1920s golden age of experimental Soviet film Sergei Eisenstein, 1898-1948 Great soviet filmmaker of 1920s: innovative, hugely influential director and film theorist “The Battleship Potemkin” 1925: Odessa Steps scene o Brutal massacre of civilians “October”, 1928: Storming of the Winter Palace scene o Part of 10-year anniversary of Bolshevik takeover Civil War and the Establishment of the Soviet Union Beginning summer 1918 Civil War Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) fighting Reds (pro-Bolsheviks) War Communism During civil war, Bolsheviks institute the policy of war communism o Make all sacrifices in order to create new socialist future Creation of state economy o Take over industry o Requisitions of peasant grain o Badly trained bureaucrats, resentment At the same time, mass famine (drop in peasant output), big drought, misery, death, starvation Economy was a disaster From War Communism to NEP Lenin realizes to maintain control he has to make changes o Stops war communism o Establishes new policy called NEP New Economic Policy NEP permits capitalistic, private enterprises once again Peasants could sell extra grain Private factories were okay, though state kept big industries Many delighted by lessening of privations, others see NEP as betrayal of socialist cause Meanwhile: the Rise of “Proletarian” literature in Soviet State Goal: literature of newly emancipated proletariat to replace literature of previous world/generation How to get there? Use older generation to teach new basic, necessary skills/tools New proletarian literature would spring forth with change in social structures Power Struggles in Soviet Literature of the 1920s Literature assigned a political role RAPP Russian Association of Proletarian Writers Sought proletarian hegemony over all Soviet literature No tolerance for any others of the numerous literary groups at the time Rejected the “Fellow Travelers” Writers who were not Bolsheviks and not Communist Party members but accepted the new regime 1925 resolution “On the Policy of the Party in the Area of Belles Lettres” Recognized crucial proletarian lit but also called for tolerance of Fellow Travelers 1932 Central Committee dissolves RAPP and other literary groups Fellow Travelers and Satire: Ilf & Petrov, Zoshchenko Satire: a way of using humor to show that something is foolish, weak, bad, etc Ilf & Petrov o The 12 Chairs, 1928 Takes place in 1927 Vorobyaninov From gentry family, learns family jewels in 12 chairs Joins with con man Ostap Bender to find them Bender o Old Russia, stealing from people, for himself Satire of characters and all they meet Zoshchenko o Most popular writer in Russia in 1920s o “Crime and Punishment”, 1933 Expresses total disorientation of early Soviet period Satire of new ruling class, of regime and its rhetoric, of Soviet life, but also of characters Tone of his work makes it hard to know where he stands Who exactly is being mocked? Rise of Stalin Born 1879 Ruled in Soviet Union from December of 1927 until he died in 1953 Gained power after Lenin died in 1924 o Left: Trotsky Without world revolution, socialism in Russia is doomed o Right: Bukharin Continue compromising with NEP o Center: Stalin Socialism in 1 country 15 All-Union Congress of the Communist Party th o December 27 , 1927 o Condemned all deviation from the Party line as defined by Stalin Major Policies: Collectivization of Agriculture o Began 1928 o Determined attempt to put agricultural production, including all farms and farmers, into huge state-owned collective farms o 5 million rural households disappeared Industrialization, 5-Year Plans o First 5 year plan began 1928 Determined effort to industrialize Russia Huge results USSR 5 country in world in industrial production when plan began By the end, second only to the US Effective way to industrialize a backward country, but with huge price paid Forced labor system for millions starting in early 1930s Forced labor used on huge construction projects, like canals, also lumber and gold industries Purges o Began in 1934 after assassination of Leningrad party boss Kirov o Peaked in 1936-1938: the Great Terror Guy in charge of Secret Police went a little crazy Yezhov o Millions of innocent people arrested, falsely accused, tortured, sent to GULAG camps, killed Starts within communist party, then spreads to the military Spreads to civil service or government workers Spreads to civilians o Many rehabilitated after Stalin’s death or after end of Soviet state
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