PY 352- Genetics and Environment notes
PY 352- Genetics and Environment notes 11505
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Genetics and Environment Chapter 2 1 Genotype amp Phenotype a The foundations of development are hereditary and environment b Heredity supplies each individuals genotype c Heredity and environment combine to create phenotype d Genotype is an individuals genetic information e Phenotype is an individuals directly observable characteristics 2 Genetic Foundation Chromosomes Rodlike structures within the cells that store and transmit genetic information DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid chemical substance that makes up chromosomes Gene Segment of DNA along the length of the chromosomes on your tounge 2 Mitosis amp Meiosis a Mitosis i Process which DNA duplicates itself ii Produces new body cells containing the same genetic information b Meiosis i Process which sex cells gametes are formed ii Divide into two by the number of chromosomes iii Leads to genetic variability 3 TypesofCeHs Autosomes Normal 22 pairs of chromosomes Sex Chromosomes 23rd pair of chromosomes XXfemale XYmale Gametes Sex cells sperm and ovum Zygote Form when sperm and ovum unite 4 Twins a Fraternal Dizygotic Result from release and fertilization of the ovum b Identicalmonozygotic Result when a single zygote separates to form two individuals c Studying twins is important because it lets us study how two people from the same genetic code are formed and how they challenge nature vs nurture 5 Patterns of genetic inheritance a Two forms of each gene occur at the same place on the chromosomes b One inherited from mother and one from the father c Each form is called an allele i Homozygous 9 both alleles are alike ii Heterozygous 9 alleles differ 6 DominantRecessive Inheritance a In dominantrecessive inheritance only one allele dominant affects the child characteristics The second allele recessive has no effect c Heterozygous individuals with just one recessive allele are carriers of the trait and can pass it on to their children d Knowing the parents genetic makeup allows us to predict the child s likelihood of disorders or carrying an inherited trait 7 Xlinked inheritance a 8 Reproductive choices a Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis helps people make informed decisions about conceiving carrying a pregnancy to term and adopting a child b Genetic counseling helps couples asses their chance of giving birth to a baby with a heredity disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals c Prenatal diagnostic methods are medical process that permit detection of developmental problems before birth 9 Genetic Counselor Video what about genetic testing a Mary Norton b There is a bigger picture to prognosis outcome 9 birth defect may be fixable but might not fix everything that is wrong 10 Environmental Contexts for Development a Many environmental in uences combine to affect the cause of a child s development b This includes family friends neighbors school work communities and religious organizations c Development is also in uenced by i Socioeconomic status SES ii Family functions iii Cultural context 11 Family In uences on Development a Family is most important microsystem context b Researchers view the family as a network of individual relations c Direct In uences behavior of each family member helps sustain a form of interaction in the other that either promotes or undermines psychological wellbeing d Indirect In uences interaction between any two family members is affected by 3rd parties who can serve as support for or barrens to development i Divorce 12 Socioeconomic Status SES a SES is an index of a family or individual social positions and economic wellbeing Based on years of education prestige income c SES is linked to timing of marriage parenthood family size and family values i Lower SES parents tend to emphasize external characteristics ii Higher SES parents emphasize psychological traits such as curiosity amp happiness 13Poverty Who is Poor a Poverty affects about 15 of Americans i Parents under age 25 ii Ethnic minorities iii Older adults living alone b Children of poverty are more likely than others to suffer from lifelong poor physical health and deficits in cognitive development c The stressors accompanying poverty individuals daily hassles and crisis that reduce parents ability to deal with their children effectively 14Wealthy Parents What are the risks of Af uence a Af uent parents in prestigious and highpaying occupations too often fail to engage in family interaction and parenting that promotes favorable development b Poorly adjusted af uent young people report less emotional closeness with or supervision from parents c Excessive parental demands for achievement and also leads to problems 15 Cultural Context a Cultures shape all aspects of daily life i Some value independence and privacy of family life ii Others value extendedfamily households Cultures differ in the emphasis hey place on collectivism vs individualism i In collectivist societies people define themselves part of a group and stress group over individual goals Asians ii In individualistic societies people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs 16 Geneenvironment Interaction a d Behavioral genetics are a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities There is now consensus among researchers that genetics and environment are inseparable Geneenvironmental interaction is the idea that because of their genetic makeup individuals differ in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment Study with twins 17 Twin Studies Nature vs Nurture Video 9962 Embryo splits into twins 3 brothers visit university for weight height etc see for alike personality traits Look for intelligence how long did the mother father go to school
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