BIOE 1010 Week 13 Notes
BIOE 1010 Week 13 Notes BIOE 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Littlejohn on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOE 1010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Vladimir Reukov in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Biology for BioEngineers in Bioengineering at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Module 6-2 Cell Proliferation: Growth and Division 3/30/2016 o A cell grows by performing an orderly sequence of events called the Cell Cycle. o The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle: o The cell consists of interphase and mitotic phase. o During interphase, the cell grows and the nuclear DNA is duplicated. o During the mitotic phase, the duplicated chromosomes are segregated and distributed into daughter nuclei. o The cytoplasm is usually divided as well, resulting in two daughter cells. o Mitosis is divided into five stages: 1. Prophase 2. Prometaphase 3. Metaphase 4. Anaphase 5. Telophase o Cell Cycle Checkpoints: o The cell cycle is controlled at three checkpoints: o The integrity of the DNA is assessed at the G1 checkpoint. o Proper chromosome duplication is assessed at the G2 checkpoint. o Attachment of each kinetochore to a spindle fiber is assessed at the M checkpoint. o Concentrations of cyclin proteins change throughout the cell cycle. o There is a direct correlation between cyclin accumulation and three major cell cycle checkpoints. o Also note the sharp decline of cyclin levels following each checkpoint (the transition between phases of the cell cycle), as cyclin is degraded by cytoplasm enzymes. o Cyclin-Dependent Kinases o Cyclins regulate the cell cycle only when they are tightly bound to Cdks o Cyclin-dependent kinases(Cdks) are protein kinases that, when fully activated o To become fully activated, a Cdk must bind to a cyclin protein and then be phosphorylated by another kinase o The levels of Cdk proteins are relatively stable throughout the cell cycle: however the concentrations of cyclin fluctuate and determine when Cdk/cyclin complexes form o Rb halts the cell cycle and releases its hold in response to cell growth o Cancer and the Cell Cycle o Apoptosis: physiological event o Role: to balance mitosis in all tissues o Intervenes in normal processes: embryogenesis, tissue remodeling o Highly researched in pathological states: neoplasm formation o Cell shrinks and condenses o No inflammatory response o Necrosis: pathological event o Result of acute injury o Typical of acute ischemia, infarct, sudden deprivation of blood supplies o Cell swells and bursts o Results in damaging inflammatory response