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March 27 - April 1

by: Emma Shoupe
Emma Shoupe
GPA 3.7
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About this Document

These notes cover classes from March 29, and March 31st.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Djibo Zanzot
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Shoupe on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Djibo Zanzot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Organismal Biology – Dr. Zanzot Week of March 27 March 29, 2016 Imperfect Fungi  Have no known sexual stage  Typically produce spores by mitosis  Conidia produced on conidiophores  Not a taxonomic grouping  Found in all fungal phyla  Important examples- o Penicillium  Anti-biotic o Aspergillus  Moldy o Rhizoctonia  Hyphae only Lichens  Mutualistic symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic organism (photobiont)  Photobiont = green algae or cyanobacterium or both  Tons of fungi, but maybe 6 green algae species Kingdom Animalia Arthropoda – by far the largest phyla of animals  >1,000,000 described species  >80% of animal diversity  largest class – Insecta o >850,000 described species o Largest order – Coleoptera (beetles)  >350,000 species  Largest family – Curculionidae (weevils)  >86,000 species Animals-  heterotrophic by ingestion – eat with a specific body part  gametic meiosis – all animals diploid  locomotory structures present – fingers, toes, legs, wings, etc.  true multicellularity  200 + cells  no cell walls Evolutionary Trends- 1) Planes of symmetry a. Asymmetry b. Radial symmetry c. Bilateral symmetry d. Secondarily radial symmetry (starfish) 2) Levels of organization a. Cellular (Sponge) b. Tissue (Cnidarians) c. Organs and organ systems 3) Embryological development a. 4) Body Cavity a. Coelom i. Acoelomates 1. ii. Pseudocoelomates 1. iii. Coelomates Phylum Porifera  Parazoa (“on the side of animals”)  Sessile as adults  All aquatic, mostly marine  Cellular level of organization  Filter feeders  water flows through pores, chambers, canals  Cell types – choanocytes “collar cell”  Dedicated feeding cell  Amoebocytes “amoeba-like cells”  Porocytes “tubular”  Make the spores  Pinacocytes “flattened cells”  Help maintain shape o Spicules  Mineral  Calcareous  Siliceous o Spongin fibers March 31, 2016  Body plan of phylum Porifera o Ascon  Simple  Ostium = water entry, porocytes  Mesohyl  Spongocoel  Spongin fibers  Spicules o Sycon  1 osculum  ostia ≠ porocytes in this case  flagellated chambers  spongocoel  intermediate  multiple ascon o Leucon  Incurrent canals  Ostia  Multiple oscula  Excurrent canals  Flagellated chambers  Multiple sycon  Complex  Class Calcarea o All marine o Calcareous spicules o Small o All 3 body types  Class Hexactinellida o Deep marine environments o Siliceous, 6-rayed spicules o Body sycon/leucon intermediate o Cell fused as syncytium (nuclei together) o Spongicola shrimp symbionts  Euplectella asperigillum  Given as a gift at weddings in Japan- as it grows, a pair of these shrimp live inside (1 male, 1 female) – babies can swim out to find another sponge, but the shrimp are stuck inside.  Resembles a metaphor  Class Demospongiae o Largest class o 80% of all sponge o marine and freshwater o siliceous spicules o spongin fibers o leucon body type Phylum Ctenophora  position in the tree of life is under debate o as well as convergent evolution?  Biradial symmetry  Colloblasts o Gluey cells  Iridescence  Bioluminescence  Locomotion o Not like cnardian jellies  Comb jellies  Ctenes o 8 rows of fused cilia Phylum Cnidaria  hydras  jellyfish  corals  anemones  radial symmetry  polyp & medusa  gastrodermis o gut lining, derived from endoderm  tentacles  mesoglea o jelly like substance  gastrovascular cavity  pedal disc o polyp o means foot-like, how they attach themselves o top of medusa is called a bell o cnidocyte  trigger mechanism o nemoatocyst  stinging cells  image on the right- o B- nematocyst o C- venom filled bulb o E- cnidocil


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