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Biology 2 Chapter 43 Notes (part 2)

by: Courtney Luber

Biology 2 Chapter 43 Notes (part 2) BIOL 1040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 1040 > Biology 2 Chapter 43 Notes part 2
Courtney Luber

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About this Document

Here are the rest of the notes on chapter 43
General Biology II
Dr. William Surver
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Chapter 43—Reproduction and Embryonic Development  Surrogate—woman is not able to carry a baby, so a surrogate mother is used  Test-tube baby—child is created in petri dish and inserted into woman  Implantation—most important part of pregnancy; when the embryo attaches itself to the wall of the uterus  Modes of Reproduction o Asexual  Creation of genetically identical offspring by one parent  Very rapid form of reproduction  Less genetic variation because there is only one parent involved in the process  Can occur via  Budding—new individual forms from adult; sometimes bud stays attached, but most the time it falls off and becomes its own adult  Fission—animal splits in two  Fragmentation—pieces if an animal grow into a new adult  Parthenogenesis—formation of new individual by unfertilized eggindividual is sterile (tadpole) o Sexual reproduction  Joining of gametes  Eggs and sperm o Some animals have both modes o Some animals exhibit hermaphroditism – individual has both male and female reproductive systems o Makes it easier to find a mate o May exchange gametes with other individuals o May fertilize their own eggs o Sexual reproduction results in the generation of unique offspring o External fertilization (spotting)  Gametes distributed outside of the animal  When eggs and sperm are discharged near each other  Many fish and amphibian species o Internal fertilization  Sperm is deposited in or near the female reproductive tract  Some fish and amphibians and most terrestrial species  Human Reproduction o Both sexes have  A set of gonads  Ducts for gamete transport  Structures for copulation  Male Reproduction o Testes produce sperm and male hormones o Epididymis stores sperm as they develop further o LH stimulates testes—testosterone production  Leydig cells o FSH controlled by pituitary—sperm production  Sertoli cells facilitate spermatogenesis o Men can produce sperm until death o Several glands contribute to semen  Seminal vesicles  Prostate gland  Bulbourethral glands o During ejaculation  Sperm is expelled from the penis  Seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands secrete into the urethra  Semen is formed and expelled o Sperm production  Is regulated by a negative feedback system of hormones  Involves the hypothalamus  Anterior pituitary  Testes  Female Reproduction o System that allows for pregnancy o Hormones synchronize cyclic changes in the ovary and uterus o About every 28 days  The hypothalamus signals the anterior pituitary to secret FSH and LH  Trigger the growth of a follicle and ovulation o After ovulation, the ovarian follicle becomes the corpus luteum o The corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone which  Stimulate the endometrium to thicken (lining of the uterus)  Prepare the uterus for implantation  Inhibit the hypothalamus, reducing FSH and LH o If the egg is fertilized  The embryo releases hormones that maintain the uterine lining and menstruation does not occur  First 3 months are embryonic stage  Next 6 months are fetal development o If the egg is not fertilized  The drop in LH shuts down the corpus luteum and its hormones  Menstruation is triggered and the hypothalamus and pituitary stimulate development of a new follicle o Hypothalamus controls anterior pituitary, which produces FSH and LH o FSH and LH spike around day 14  LH peak triggers ovulation and corpus luteum formation


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